Michael Psellus Operation of Dæmons
Τιμόϑεος Χϱόνιος, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, ἐπί το Βυζάντιον άπαντᾷς;
Θϱᾷξ Χϱόνιος, ὦ Τιμόϑεε, δύο που ἔτη ϰαὶ πϱὸς ἐντεῦϑεν ἔϰδημος ὤν.
Τιμόϑεος Ποῖ δὲ δή τι ϰαὶ τίνα πϱάγματα ἔχων ἐπί τοσοῦτον ἐνδιατέτϱιφας;
Θϱᾷξ Μαϰϱοτέϱας ἢ ϰατὰ τὴν παϱοῦσαν ἀπαιτεῖς ὑποϑέσεις λόγων· ἀνάγϰη γάϱ με συνείϱειν, τὸν Ἀλϰίνον ἀπόλογον, εἰ δέοι λέγειν ὅσα ἐπῄειν, ὅσα τε ἔτλην ἀσεβέσι συμπλαϰεὶς ἀνδϱάσιν. Εὐχίτας αὐτοὺς ϰαὶ Ἐνϑουσιαστὰς οἱ πολλοὶ ϰαλοῦσιν. Ἒ οὐϰ ἀϰοήν τινα ἔχων πεϱὶ τούτων ϰαὶ αὐτός τυγχάνεις;
Τιμόϑεος Μανϑάνω μέν τινας ϑεομάχους ἄνδϱας ϰαὶ ἀτοπους ἐπιειϰῶς ἐν μέσῳ στϱέφεσϑαι τοῦ ϰαϑ’ ἡμᾶς ἱεϱοῦ ϰόμματος, ϰατὰ τὴν ϰωμῳδίαν εἰπεῖν, δόγματα δὲ αὐτῶν ϰαὶ ἔϑη ϰαὶ νόμους ϰαὶ έϱγα ϰαὶ λόγους παϱ’ οὐδενὸς οὐδέπω μοι μαϑεῖν ἐξεγένετο, ϰαί σου δέομαι ἅττα ἅν εἰδείης σαφέστατα ἐπελϑεῖν, εἴ τι βούλει ἀνδϱί συνήϑει, πϱοσϑήσω δὲ ϰαὶ φίλῳ, χαϱίζεσϑαι.
Θϱᾷξ Ἔα, φίλε Τιμόϑεε, ἀνάγϰη γὰϱ ἐμέ τε πεϱιωσϑῆναι πϱὸς ἴλιγγον, ἐπιόντα δόγματά τε ἀλλόϰοτα ϰαὶ ἔϱγα δαιμόνια, ϰαὶ σέγε μηδὲν πεϱὶ τούτων ἐσχηϰέναι ϰέϱδος. Εἰ γάϱ, ϰατὰ τὸν Σιμωνίδην, ὁ λόγος τῶν πϱαγμάτων εἰϰών ἐστιν, ὡς εἶναι τὸν μὲν τῶν ὠφελίμων ὠφέλιμον, τὸν δὲ μὴ τοιούτων οὐϰ ἀγαϑόν, τί αν οἴσει χϱηστὸν ὁ τοὺς ἐναγεῖς εἰϰονίζων λόγος;
Τιμόϑεος Καὶ πάνυ γε, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, εἴπεϱ ϰαὶ ἰατϱοῖς εἰδέναι τὰ ϑανατώδη τῶν φαϱμάϰων οὐϰ ἄχϱηστον, ὡς μή τῳ τούτων πεϱιπεσεῖν ϰινδυνεύσαιεν· ἐῶ γὰϱ λέγειν ὅτι ϰαὶ ἔνια τούτων εἰς ὑγείαν οὐν ἀσυντέλεστα, ὥστ’ ἔσται ϰαὶ ἡμῖν δυοῖν ϑάτεϱον, ἢ γὰϱ ἀποισόμεϑά τι χϱηστότεϱον ἐϰ τοῦ σϰέµµατος ἢ φυλαξόμεϑα ἢν τι πϱόσεστι βλαβεϱόν.
Θϱᾷξ Εἶεν. Ἀϰούσῃ ϰατὰ τὴν ποίησιν ἐτήτυμα μέν, οὐχ ὡς ἥδιστα δέ· εἰ δέ τινων ἀσχημόνων ὁ λόγος ἐπιμνησϑῇ, μὴ χαλέπαινε μηδ᾽ ἐμὲ τὸν παϱενείϱοντα, τοὺς δὲ δϱῶντας αἰτιῶ διϰαίως.
Ἔχει μὲν τὸ παλαμναῖον τοῦτο δόγµα παϱὰ Μάνεντος τοῦ µανέντος τὰς ἀφοϱμάς· ἐϰεῖϑεν γὰϱ αὐτοῖς αἱ πλείους ἀϱχαὶ ϰαϑάπεϱ ἐϰ πηγῆς τινος δυσώδους ἐϱϱύησαν. Ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν ἐπαϱάτῳ Μάνεντι δύο ὑπετέϑησαν τῶν ὄντων ἀϱχαί, Θεῷ ϑεόν, δημιουϱγῷ τῶν ἀγαϑῶν αὐτουϱγὸν ϰαϰίας, τῷ ἀγαϑῷ ἄϱχοντι τῶν οὐϱανίων τὸν τῆς ϰαϰίας ἄϱχοντα τῶν ἐπιγείων πλημμελῶς ἀντιτάττοντι. Εὐχίταις δὲ τούτοις τοῖς ϰαϰοδαίµοσι ϰαὶ ἑτέϱα τις ἀϱχὴ πϱοσελήφϑη τϱίτη· πατὴϱ γὰϱ αὐτοῖς υἱοί τε δύο, πϱεσβύτεϱος ϰαὶ νεώτεϱος, αἱ ἀϱχαί, ὧν τῷ μὲν πατϱὶ τὰ ὑπεϱϰόσμις μόνα, τῷ δὲ νεωτέϱῳ τῶν υἱῶν τὰ οὐϱάνια, ϑατέϱῳ δὲ τῷ πϱεσβυτέϱῳ τῶν ἐγϰοσμίων τὸ ϰϱάτος ἀποτετάχασιν, ὃ ϰατὰ μηδέν ἐστι τῆς ἑλληνιϰῆς μυϑολογίας ἀπολειπόμενον, ϰατὰ τὸ τϱιχϑὰ δὲ πάντα δέδασται.
Ταύτην δὲ τὴν σαϑϱὰν ὑποβάϑϱαν ὑποϑέντες οἳ σαϑϱοὶ τὰς φϱένας τὸ μὲν µέχϱι ταύτης εἰσὶν ἀλλήλοις ὁμόφϱονες, τὸ δ’ ἐντεῦϑεν τϱιχῆ ταῖς γνώµαις διΐστανται. Οἱ μὲν γὰϱ τούτων νέµουσιν ἀμφοῖν τοῖν υἱοῖν τὸ σέβας· ϰἂν γὰϱ πϱὸς ἀλλήλους διαφέϱεσϑαί φασι νῦν, ἀλλ’ ὅμως ἄμφω σεβαστέον ὡς ἐν πατϱὸς ἑνὸς ϰαταλλαγησομένους ἐπὶ τοῦ μέλλοντος. Οἱ δὲ ϑατέϱῳ τῷ νεωτέϱῳ λατϱεύουσιν, ὡς τῆς ϰϱείττονος ϰαὶ ὑπεϱϰειμένης µεϱίδος ϰατάϱχοντι, τὸν πϱεσβύτεϱον οὐϰ ἀτιμάζοντες μέν, φυλαττόμενοι δ’ αὐτὸν ὡς ϰαϰοποιῆσαι δυνάµενον. Οἱ δὲ χείϱους αὐτῶν τὴν ἀσέβειαν τοῦ μὲν οὐϱανίου διϊστῶσιν ἑαυτοὺς ἐπὶ πᾶν, αὐτὸν δὲ µόνον τὸν ἐπίγειον Σαταναὴλ ἐνστεϱνίζονται, τῶν τε ὀνομάτων τοῖς εὐφημοτέϱοις ἀποσεμνύνοντες πϱωτότοϰον τὸν ἀλλότϱιον ἐϰ πατϱὸς ϰαλοῦσι, φυτῶν τε ϰαὶ ζῴων ϰαὶ τῶν λοιπῶν συνϑέτων δημιουϱγὸν τὸν φϑοϱοποιὸν ϰαὶ ὀλέϑϱιον. Ἀποϑεϱαπεύειν δ’ αὐτὸν ϰαὶ μᾶλλον ἔτι βουλόμενοι, φεῦ, ὁπόσα παϱοινοῦσιν εἰς τὸν οὐϱάνιον, φϑονεϱόν τε λέγοντες εἶναι τἀδελφῷ παϱαλόγως διαφϑονούµενον εὖ διαϰοσμοῦντι τὰ ἐπὶ γῆς ϰαὶ φϑόνῳ τυφόµενον σεισμοὺς ϰαὶ χαλάζας ϰαὶ λοιμοὺς ἐπάγειν. Διὸ ϰαὶ ἐπαϱῶνται αὐτῷ ἄλλα τε ϰαὶ τὸ παλαμναῖον ἀνάϑεμα.
Τιμόϑεος Τίσι δὲ λόγοις, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, πεπείϰασιν ἑαυτοὺς τὸν Σαταναὴλ υἱὸν Θεοῦ ϰαὶ φϱονεῖν ϰαὶ λέγειν, τῶν τε πϱοφητιϰῶν ϰαὶ ϑείων χϱησμῶν ἕνα Υἱὸν πανταχοῦ λεγόντων τοῦ τε ἐπιστηϑδίου ϰατὰ τὰ ἄχϱαντα εὐαγγέλια ϰεϰϱαγότος πεϱὶ τοῦ Θεοῦ ϰαὶ Λόγου δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παϱὰ Πατϱός, ϰαὶ αὖ ὁ µονογενής, ὃ ὢν εἰς τὸν ϰόλσον τοῦ Πατϱός. Πόδεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ἐπῆλϑεν ἡ τοσαύτη πλάνη;
Θϱᾷξ Μόϑεν ἄλλοϑεν, ὦ Τιμόϑεε, ἣ ϰαὶ αὐτὸς ὁ τοῦ ψεύδους ἄϱχων ταῦτα πεϱιαυτολογῶν τῶν ἀνοήτων ἀπατᾷ τὰς γνώμας; Ὃ γὰϱ τὸν αὐτοῦ ϑϱόνον ϑεῖναι ἔἐπὲ τῶν νεφελῶν ϰαυχώμενος ϰαὶ ἔσεσϑαι ὅμοιος τῷ ὑψίστῳ λέγων ϰαὶ διὰ τοῦτο ϰαὶ ἔϰπτωτος ϰαὶ σϰότος γενόμενος, αὐτὸς οὗτος τούτοις ἐμφανιζόμενος υἱὸν Θεοῦ πϱωτότοϰον ἑαυτὸν ἀναγγέλλει ϰαὶ τῶν ἐπιγείων ἁπάντων δημιουϱγόν, ἄγειν τε ϰαὶ φέϱειν τὸ ἐγϰόσμιον πᾶν, ϰαὶ οὕτω τὴν ἑϰάστου ἄνοιαν μετιὼν φεναϰίζει τοὺς ἄφϱονας, οὗς δέον, ϰατὰ νοῦν λαβόντας ὡς ἀλαζὼν ϰαὶ ψεύδους ἀϱχηγός ἐστι, ϰαταγελάσαι ϰομπάζοντος. Οἱ δὲ οὐχ οὕτως, ἀλλὰ πείϑονται ταῦτα λέγοντι ϰαὶ ἄγονται ϰαϑάπεϱ βόες ἀπὸ ῥινῶν. Καίτοι ἐνὴν οὐ διὰ πολλοῦ φωϱάσαι ψευδόμενον" εἰ γὰϱ ἀπύτουν αὐτὸν τὰς μεγαληγόϱους ταύτας ἐπαγγελίας ἐπὶ τῶν ἔϱγων ἐνδείξασϑαι, οὐδὲν ἄλλο πλὴν ὁ παϱὰ Κύμην ὄνος ἐνδεδυμένος λεοντῆν εὑϱέϑη, ὃν ἤλεγχε βϱυχήσασϑαι πειϱώμενον ἢ βοή. Νῦν δέ, ὥσπεϱ ἐϰϰεϰομμένοι τοὺς ὀφϑαλμοὺς ϰαὶ ἐϰϰεϰωφημένοι τὰ ὦτα ϰαὶ νοῦ μηδαμῶς μετέχοντες ἔμφϱονος, οὔτε παϱὰ τῆς τῶν ὄντων συγγενείας ἕνα τὸν δημιουϱγὸν ὁϱῶσιν, οὔτε τοῦτ᾽ αὐτὸ λεγούσης ἐπαίουσιν, οὔτε λογισμῷ βασανίζουσιν ὧς, εἰ δύο διεστῶτες τῶν ὄντων ἧσαν δημιουϱγοί, οὐϰ ἂν ἦν μία τὰ πάντα συνδέουσα τάξις ϰαὶ ἕνωσις. Ἰζαὶ ὄνοι μὲν ϰαὶ βόες, ϰατὰ τὸν πϱοφήτην, οὖ;“ ἡγνοήϰασι τὴν φάτνην ϰαὶ τὸν ϰτησάμενον" οἱ δὲ χαίϱειν τὸν ἑαυτῶν δεσπότην ἐάσαντες ϑεὸν αὐτοὶ ϰεχειϱοτονήϰασι τὸν ἐν τοῖς ϰτίσμασιν ἀτιμότεϱον ϰαὶ ἕπονται οἱ πυϱαῦσται, ϰατὰ τὴν παϱοιμίαν, εἰς τὸ σοῦϱ ἑαυτοὺς ϰαϑιέντες, ὃ πάλαι αὐτῷ ϰαὶ τοῖς αὐτῷ συναποστᾶσιν ἡτοίμασται.
Τιμόϑεος Κέϱδους δὲ τίνος παϱαπολαύοντες ἐξόμνυνται μὲν τὸ ϑεῖον σέβας ϰαὶ πάτϱιον, ὀλέϑϱῳ δὲ πϱοφανεῖ στοιχοῦσι;
Θϱᾷξ Κέϱδους μὲν οὐϰ οἵδ᾽ εἴ τοῦ παϱαπολαύουσιν, ἀλλ᾽ οἶμαι ὡς οὐδενός" χϱυσὸν μὲν γὰϱ ϰαὶ ϰτήσεις ϰαὶ τὸ παϱ᾽ ἀνϑϱώποις δοξάϱιον, εἰ ϰαὶ παϱέχειν ἐπαγγέλλεται τὰ δαιμόνια, πλὴν οὐχ οἷά τέ ἐστι διδόναι, μηδενὸς ϰϱατοῦντα φαντάσματα δὲ τοῖς τελουμένοις ἐμποιεῖ ποιϰίλα ϰαὶ ἔξαλλα, ἃς ϑεοπτίας οἱ ϑεοστυγεῖς ϰαλοῦσιν. ὯΩν βουλομένοις γίνεσϑαι ϑεαταῖς, ἰού, ἰού, πόσα μὲν αὐτοῖς τῶν αἰσχϱῶν τελεῖται, πόσα δὲ τῶν ἀϱϱήτων ϰαὶ μυσαϱῶν᾽ ἅπαν γὰϱ ἔννομον παϱ᾽ ἡμῖν δητόν τε δόγμα πϱαϰτόν τε ἔϱγον ἀϑετοῦντες λυττῶσι ϰαὶ πϱὸς αὐτοὺς τοὺς φυσιϰοὺς ἀϑετοῦντές εἶσι νόμους. Καὶ τὰς παϱοινίας αὐτῶν εἰς γϱαφὴν ἀνεῖναι μόνης ἂν εἴη τῆς ᾿Αϱχιλόχου βδελυϱίας ἔϱγον" οἶμαι δὲ ϰἀϰεῖνον, εἰ παϱῆν, ὀϰνήσειν ἀξιῶσαι μνήμης ὄϱγια ϰατάπτυστα ϰαὶ ἐξάγιστα, μῆτε Ἑλλάδος, μὴτε βαϱβάϱου γῆς γενόμενα πώποτε. Ποῦ γὰϱ ϰαὶ πότε ϰαὶ παϱὰ τίσιν ἤϰουσταί που τῆς ὑγϱᾶς ϰαὶ τῆς ξηϱᾶς ἀπογεύσασϑαι πεϱιττώματος ἄνϑϱωπον, τίμιον ζῷον ϰαὶ ἱεϱόν : Ὃ μηδὲ τοὺς λυττῶντας ϑῆϱας ϰαϱτεϱήσειν οἶμαι. ᾿Αλλ᾽ ὅμως τοῖς ϰαϰοδαίμοσι τούτοις πϱοτελεῖται τοῦτο.
Τιμόϑεος Δι’ ἣν αἰτίαν, ὦ Θϱᾷξ;
Θϱᾷξ Τὸ μὲν ἀπόϱϱητον, ὦ ἑταῖϱε, εἰδεῖεν ἂν οἱ ταυτὶ τελοῦντες" ἐμοὶ δὲ πολλάϰις ἀνεϱομένῳ πλέον εἶπον οὐδέν, πλὴν ὅτι τῶν πεϱιττωμάτων μεταλαχοῦσι φίλα σφίσι γίνεται ϰαὶ πϱοσήγοϱα τὰ δαιμόνια. Ἰζαὶ τουτὶ τὸ μέϱος οὔτι μοι δοϰοῦσιν ἐψεῦσϑαι, ϰαίτοι τἄλλα μηδὲν ἀληϑὲς εἰδότες λέγειν: οὐδὲν γὰϱ οὕτω τοῖς ἀντιϰειμένοις πνεύμασιν ἥδιστον, ὡς τὸ τὸν φϑονούμενον ἄνϑϱωπον εἰϰόνι τιμνηϑέντα ϑείᾳ πϱὸς τοσαύτην ὀλισϑαίνειν ὕβϱιν. Τοιοῦτον μὲν δὴ τῆς ἀνοίας αὐτῶν τὸ ἀποτέλεσμα, ϰοινὸν ὃν οὐ μόνον τοῖς πϱοεστῶσι τοῦ δόγματος, εἰς οὗς ϰαὶ τὴν τῶν ἀποστόλων ϰαταϱϱιπτοῦσι πϱοσηγοϱίαν, ἀλλὰ ϰαὶ τοῖς Εὐχίταις ϰαὶ τοῖς Γνωστιϰοῖς" τὴν δὲ δὴ μυστιϰὴν ϑυσίαν, ἀλεξίϰαϰε Λόγε, τίς ἂν ἐξενέγϰοι λόγος : ᾿Εγὼ μὲν αἰσχύνομαι, νὴ τὴν αἰδώ, διὰ γλώττης ἄγειν ϰαί ποὺ ϰαὶ ἐπεῖχον ἄν: ἐπεὶ δὲ σύ μου, Τιμόϑεε, φϑάσας ϰεϰϱάτηϰας, μετϱίως φῶ, τὰ αἰσχίω παϱεάσας χαίϱειν, μὴ ϰαὶ δόξω ϰαϑάπεϱ ἐν σϰηνῇ τινι ϰαὶ δϱάματι τϱαγῳδεῖν. Ἑσπέϱας γὰϱ πεϱὶ λύχνων ἁφὰς ὁπόϑ᾽ ἡμῖν τὸ σωτήϱιον ἐξυμνεῖται πάϑος, εἰς ἀποτεταγμένον δωμάτιον ἀγηοχότες τὰς παϱ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἐνασϰουμένας ϰόϱας, τούς τε λύχνους ἀποσβεννύντες, ἵνα μὴ τὸ φῶς τοῦ γινομένου μύσους ἔχωσι μάϱτυϱα, ταῖς ϰόϱαις ἐνασελγαίνουσιν ὁποία ἂν ἕϰαστος, ϰἂν ἀδελφῇ, ϰἂν ἰδίᾳ ϑυγατϱὶ ξυντύχῃ᾽ οἴονται γὰϱ ϰἀν τούτῳ χαϱιεῖσϑαι τοῖς δαίμοσιν, εἰ παϱαλύσουσι τοὺς ϑείους ϑεσμούς, ἐν οἷς τὰ πεϱὶ τῶν ἐξ αἵματος ὁμογνίου γάμων ἀπαγοϱεύουσι. Καὶ τότε μὲν ταυτὶ τελέσαντες ἀπαλλάττονται" τὴν δ᾽ ἐννεάμηνον πεϱίοδον ἀναμείναντες, ὅτε ϰαιϱὸς ἐϰτεχϑήσεσϑαι τὰ ἐξ ἀϑεμίτου σπέϱματος ἀϑέμιτα ἔϰγονα, ϰατὰ ταὐτὸν ἀπαντῶσιν αὖϑις. Καὶ δὴ τῇ μετὰ τὸν τόϰον τϱίτῃ τὰ δύστηνα τῶν μητέϱων ἀποσπῶντες βϱέφη ϰαὶ ξυϱῷ τὰ τούτων σαϱϰία πεϱιαμύττοντες, τὸ ῥυϊσϰόμενον αἷμα φιάλαις ὑπολαμβάνουσιν: αὐτὰ δὲ ἐπὶ πυϱὰν βαλόντες ἔτ᾽ ἐμπνέοντα ϰάουσιν. Εἶτα, τὴν ἐϰ τούτων τέφϱαν τῷ ἐν φιάλαις αἵματι φύϱοντες, σύνϑετόν τι βδέλυγμα ξυντιϑέασιν, ᾧ τά τε σῖτα ϰαὶ τὰ ποτὰ λαϑϱαίως μολύνοντες, ϰαϑάπεϱ οἱ τῷ μελιϰϱάτῳ παϱαμιγνύντες τὸ δηλητήϱιον, αὐτοί τε τούτων ϰαὶ τῶν ἄλλων οὗ τὸ ϰϱυπτόμενον μὴ φωϱάσαντες συμμετέχουσι.
Τιμόϑεος Τί βούλεται οὗτος αὐτοῖς ὁ ἀποτϱόπαιος μολυσμός;
Θϱᾷξ Πείϑονται, φίλ᾽ ἑταῖϱε, διὰ τούτου τὰ ἐν ψυχαῖς ϑεῖα σύμβολα διωϑεῖσϑαί τε ϰαὶ ἀπαλείφεσϑαι" τούτων γὰϱ ταῖς ψυχαῖς ἐνόντων, ὥσπεϱ τινὸς ἐν οἰϰίσϰῳ σημαίας βασιλι“εῆς, τὸ δαιμόνιον φῦλον δέδιε ϰαὶ ἀφίσταται. “ἵν᾽ οὖν δύνηται τὰ δαιμόνια ταῖς σφῶν ψυχαῖς ἐνδιατϱίβειν ἐπὶ σχολῆς, τὰ ϑεῖα σύμβολα διώϰουσι τοῖς βδελύγμασι τούτοις, οἱ νήπιοι, ἀἄνϑ᾽ οἵων οἷα διαμειβόμενοι; Καὶ οὐ μόνοι τουτὶ τὸ δεῖνον ἀγαπῶσιν ἔχειν, ἀλλ᾽ ἵνα πϱὸς τὸν αὐτὸν αὑτοῖς ϰαὶ ἑτέϱους ὑποσπῶσι βόϑϱον, ἀποπειϱῶνται ϰαὶ τῶν εὐσεβῶν τὰ ϰαϑάϱματα ϰαὶ τούτοις τοῖς ϑαυμαστοῖς ἐδέσμασι λανϑάνοντες ἑστιῶσι, Τάνταλοί τινες παϱατιϑέντες πανδαισίαν Πελόπειον.
Τιμόϑεος Βαβαΐ, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, τοῦτο ἐϰεῖνο ὃ πάλαι μοι πάππος ὃ πϱὸς πατϱὸς πϱοηγόϱευσεν: ἀσχάλλων γὰϱ ἐγώ ποτε τά τε ἄλλα τῶν ἀγαϑῶν ϰαὶ δὴ ϰαὶ τὰ μαϑήματα ὑποϱϱεῖν, ἠϱόμην ἐϰεῖνον εἴ τις ἔσται αὖϑις ἐπίδοσις. Ὃ δὲ ϰάϱτα γέϱων ὧν ϰαὶ πολλὰ τῶν ἐσομένων ξυνιδεῖν ἀγχίνους, ἠϱέμα ϰαταψῆσας μου τὴν ϰόμην ϰαὶ βαϑὺ στενάξας" „ὦ τέχνον,. ἔἔφη, ἔλον, ὦ παῖ, λόγους τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε ἤ τινα ἄλλην ἀϱετὴν φίλον, ν λόγους τὸ ἀπὸ τ τινα ἄλλην ἀϱετὴ ἐπιδώσειν οἴει; Καιϱὸς ἐφέστηϰε νῦν ὅτε βιώσουσιν ἄνϑϱωποι χεῖϱον ϰαὶ αὐτῶν ϑηϱίων' τὸ γάϱ τοι ϰϱάτος τοῦ ϰοσμοϰϱάτοϱος ἐγγὺς ἐπὶ ϑύϱαις ἥϰει ϰαὶ δεῖ τῆς αὐτοῦ παϱουσίας πϱόδϱομα ϰαϰὰ πϱοηγήσασϑαι δόγματά τε ἀλλόϰοτα ϰαὶ ἀϑέσμους πϱάξεις, οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν Διονύσου τελεταῖς ἀμείνους ϰαὶ ἅπεϱ “Ἕλλησι τετϱαγῴδηται, Κϱόνος ἢ Θυέστης Τάνταλος τὰ ἔϰγονα ϰαταϑύοντες, Οἰδίπους τε μητϱὶ συμφυϱόμενος ϰαὶ Κινύϱας τῇ ϑυγατϱί, ταῦτα δὴ τὰ πάνδεινα ϰαὶ πεϱὶ πολιτείαν ἐπεισφϱήσει τὴν ἡμετέϱαν. ᾿Αλλ᾽ ὅϱα ϰαὶ φυλάττου, τέϰνον" ἴσϑι γὰϱ ϰαὶ πάνυ γε ἴσϑι ὡς οὐ μόνον τῆς ἀπαιδεύτου ϰαὶ ἀμούσου μοΐϱας, ἀλλὰ πολλοὶ ϰαὶ τῆς πεπαιδευμένης εἰς ταῦτα συνυπαχϑήσονται.“ Ταῦτα ὁ μέν, ὡς ἔοιϰεν, ἐπεϑείασεν᾽ ἐγὼ δὲ ἔϰτοτε ϰαὶ εἰς δεῦϱο τῶν ἐϰείνου μεμνημένος λόγων σοῦ ταῦτα λέγοντος νῦν ϑαυμάζων διατελῶ.
Θϱᾷξ Καὶ ϑαυμάζειν δεῖ σε, Τιμόϑεε. Ατοπα μὲν γὰϱ πολλὰ ϰαὶ παϱὰ τῶν ἐν ὑπεϱβοϱέοις ἐϑνῶν, πολλὰ ϰαὶ τῶν ἀμφὶ Λιβύην ϰαὶ Σύϱτιν ἱστόϱηται" τοιοῦτον δὲ ϰαϰίας εἶδος οὐδὲν ἀϰούσῃ οὔτε πεϱὶ αὐτούς, οὔτε πεϱὶ Κελτούς, οὐδ᾽ ἄν τι πεϱὶ Βϱεττανίαν ἔϑνος ἔϰνομον ϰαὶ ἄγϱιον ἧ.
Τιμόϑεος Δεινόν γε, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, εἰ τοιοῦτον μύσος εἰς τὴν ϰαϑ᾽ ἡμᾶς οἰϰουμένην ἐπεχωϱίασεν. ᾿Αλλὰ τούτους μὲν ἔα φϑινύϑειν ϰαὶ ϰαϰοὺς ϰαϰῶς αὐτοῖς ἐπιτηδεύμασιν ἐξαπόλλυσϑαι: ἐμὲ δὲ δαιμόνων πέϱι πολυετὴς ἀποϱία διαταϱάττει, τά τε ἄλλα ϰαὶ εἰ τοῖς ϰαϰοδαίμοσι τούτοις ἐμφανῶς ὁϱῶνται.
Θϱᾷξ Καὶ μήν, ὦ λῷστε, πϱὸς τοῦτο πᾶσιν αὐτοῖς ἣ σπουδὴ συντείνει ϰαὶ ἔντευξις ϰαὶ ϑυσία ϰαὶ τελετὴ ϰαὶ πᾶν ἐπίϱϱητον ϰαὶ ἀπόϱϱητον τῆς αὐτοφανείας ταύτης ἕνεϰα παϱ᾽ αὐτοῖς τελεῖται.
Τιμόϑεος Πῶς οὖν, μὴ σῶμα ὄντες, τοῖς ἐϰτὸς ὄμμασιν ὁϱῶνται;
Θϱᾷξ Ἀλλ᾽ οὐϰ ἀσώματον, ὦ γενναῖε, τὸ δαιμόνιόν ἐστι φῦλον, μετὰ σώματος δέ γε ϰαὶ ἀμφὶ σώματα διατέτϱιφε. Καὶ τοῦτο ἔστι μὲν ϰαὶ παϱ᾽ αὐτῶν μαϑεῖν τῶν ἡμεδαπῶν ϰαὶ σεπτῶν πατέϱων, εἴ τις τὰ αὐτῶν οὐϰ ἀϱγῶς ἐπίοι" ἔστι δὲ ϰαὶ πολλῶν ἀϰοῦσαι τὰς μετὰ σωμάτων αὐτοῖς αὐτοφανείας διηγουμένων. Καὶ Βασίλειος δὲ ὁ ϑεῖος, ὁ τῶν ἀϑεάτων ἐπόπτης τῶν ἡμῖν ἀδήλων, οὐ δαίμοσι μόνοις, ἀλλὰ ϰαὶ τοῖς ἀχϱάντοις ἀγγέλοις ἐνεῖναι σώματα διατείνεται, οἷά τινα πνεύματα λεπτὰ ϰαὶ ἀεϱώδη ϰαὶ ἄχϱαντα, ϰαὶ τοῦ λόγου παϱέχεται μάϱτυϱα Δαυὶδ τὸν ἐν πϱοφήταις ὀνομαστότατον, ὃ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ σινεύματα, λέγοντα, ϰαὶ τοὺς λειτουϱγοὺς φλογίνους. Καὶ πᾶσα ἀνάγϰη; τοῖς γὰϱ λειτουϱγοῖς ϰαὶ ἀποστελλομένοις πνεύμασιν, ὡς ὁ ϑεσπέσιος ἀποφαίνεται Παῦλος, ἔδει σώματός τινος ὡς ϰινήσονται ϰαὶ ἑστήξονται ϰαὶ φανήσονταΐ γε οὐ γὰϱ ἄλλως ταῦτα ἐνόν, ἀλλὰ διὰ σώματός τινος οὑτωσὶ τελεῖσϑαι.
Τιμόϑεος Πῶς οὖν ὡὡς ἀσώματοι πολλαχοῦ τῆς γϱαφῆς ὑμνοῦνται;
Θϱᾷξ Ὅτιϰαὶ τοῖς ἡμετέϱοις ϰαὶ ϑύϱαζε ϰαὶ τοῖς ἀπωτέϱω ϰαὶ ϑύϱαϑεν εἰωϑός ἐστι τὰ παχύτεϱα τῶν σωμάτων σωματώδη λέγειν" ὃ δὲ λεπτοὑεϱές ἐστι ϰαὶ τὴν ὄψιν διαφυγγάνον ϰαὶ τὴν ἁφήν, ἀσώματον οὐ μόνον οἱ ϰαϑ’ ἡμᾶς, ἀλλὰ ϰαὶ πολλοὶ τῶν ἐϰτὸς ἀξιοῦσι λέγειν.
Τιμόϑεος Ἀλλὰ τί δή; Τοῦτο τὸ συμφυὲς τοῖς ἀγγέλοις σῶμα πότεϱον ταὐτόν ἐστι ϰαὶ τοῖς δαίμοσιν;
Θϱᾷξ Ἄπαγε, πολλοῦ γε ϰαὶ δεῖ. Τὸ μὲν γὰϱ ἀγγελυϰὸν αὐγάς τινας ἐξανίσχον ξένας τοῖς ἐϰτὸς ὀφϑαλμοῖς ἐστιν ἀφόϱητόν τε ϰαὶ ἀνυπόστατὸ δαιμόνιον δέ, εἰ μὲν τοιοῦτον δήποτε ἦν, οὐϰ οἶδα εἰπεῖν ἔοιϰε δ᾽ οὖν, ἑωσφόϱον “Ἡσαΐου τὸν ἐϰπεσόντα ϰατονομάζοντος. Νῦν δὲ ἀλλὰ ζοφῶδες οἷον ϰαὶ ἀμαυϱόν ἐστι ϰαὶ τοῖς ὄμμασι λυπηϱόν, γυμνωϑὲν τοῦ συζύγου φωτός. Καὶ τὸ μὲν ἀγγελιὸν παντάπασίν ἐστιν ἄῦϊλονδιὸ ϰαὶ διὰ παντός ἐστι στεϱεοῦ διαδῦνον ϰαὶ διϊὸν ϰαὶ τῆς ἡλιοϱϰῆς ἀϰτῖνος ὃν ἀπαϑέστεϱον᾽ τὴν μὲν γὰϱ διὰ σωμάτων διαφανῶν ἰοῦσαν ἀποστέγει τὰ γεώδη ϰαὶ ἀλαμπῇ, ὡς ϰαὶ ϰλάσιν ὑπομένειν, ἅτε δὴ τὸ ἔνυλον ἔχουσαν: τῷ δὲ οὐδὲν αὐτῶν ἐστὶ πϱόσαντες, οἷα μηδεμίαν ἔχοντι πϱὸς μηδὲν ἀντίϑεσιν, μηδέ τισιν ὁμόστοιχον ὄν. Τὰ δὲ δαιμόνια σώματα, ϰἂν ὑπὸ λεπτότητος ἀφανῇ ϰαϑέστηϰεν, ἀλλ᾽ ὅμως ἔνυλά πη ϰαὶἉ ἐμπαϑῇ ϰαὶ μάλισϑ᾽ ὅσα τοὺς ὑπὸ γῆν ὑποδέδυϰε τόπους ταῦτα γὰϱ τοσαύτην ἔχει τὴν σύστασιν, ὡς ϰαὶ ἁφαῖς ὑποπίπτειν ϰαὶ πληττόμενα ὀδυνᾶσϑαι ϰαὶ πυϱὶ πϱοσομιλήσαντα ϰάεσϑαι ὡς ϰαὶ ἔνια τούτων ἀπολείπειν τέφϱαν, ὃ συμβῆναι ϰαὶ πεϱὶ τοὺς ἐν ᾿Ιταλίᾳ Τούσϰους ἱστόϱηται.
Τιμόϑεος Τηϱάσϰω, ϰατὰ τὴν παϱοιμίαν, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, ἀεὶ ϰαινὰ διδασϰόμενος, οἷον ϰαὶ νῦν τὸ δαίμονάς τινας εἶναι σωματώδεις ϰαὶ ἐμπαϑεῖς.
Θϱᾷξ Οὐδέν, ὦ ἑταῖϱε, ϰαινὸν ἀνϑϱώπους ἡμᾶς ὄντας, ϰατὰ τὸν εἰπόντα, πολλὰ ἀγνοεῖν: ἀγαπητὸν γὰϱ εἰ ϰαὶ γηϱάσϰουσιν ἡμῖν ἐγγίνεται νοῦς. Πλὴν ἴἔσϑι μηδ’ αὐτὸν ἐϱϱαψῳδηϰέναι με ταῦτα τεϱατευόμενον ϰατὰ τοὺς Κϱῆτας ἣ Φοίνιϰας, ἀλλ᾽ εἰμὶ μὲν ϰαὶ παϱὰ τῶν τοῦ Σωτῆϱος λόγων πεπεισμένος ταῦτα συϱὶ ϰολασϑήσέσϑαι φασϰόντων . τοὺς δαίμονας" ὃ πῶς οἷόν τε παϑεῖν ἀσωμάτους ὄντας; Τὸ γὰϱ ἀσώματον ἀμήχανον παϑεῖν ὑπὸ σώματος. ᾿Ανάγϰη γοῦν σώμασιν αὐτοὺς τὴν ϰόλασιν ὑποδέχεσϑαι πεφυϰόσι πάσχειν.ἔχω δὲ ϰαὶ πολλὰ ϰαταϰούσας παϱὰ τῶν εἰς αὐτοψίας τούτων ἑαυτοὺς ϰαϑέντων: ἐμοὶ γὰϱ οὐδέπω οὐδὲν τοιοῦτον τεϑέαται" μηδὲ εἴη μοι δαιμόνων ὄψεις εἰδεχϑεῖς ϑεᾶσϑαι. Μονάζοντι δέ τινι πεϱὶ Χεϱϱόνησον τὴν ὅμοϱον Ἑλλάδος ξυγγέγονα" Μάϱϰος ὄνομα τούτῳ ἦν, ϰαὶ τὸ γένος ἐπὶ τὴν μέσην τῶν ποταμῶν ἀνέφεϱεν, ὃς τελεστὴς ϰαὶ ἐπόπτης, εἴπεϱ τις ἄλλος, τῶν δαιμονίων γεγονὼς φασμάτων, ταῦτα μὲν ὡς ἕωλα ϰαὶ ϰατεψευσμένα πεϱιεῖδέ τε ϰαὶ ἐξωμόσατο, παλινῳδίαν δὲ ἄσας δόγμασι πϱοσέϑετο τοῖς ἀληϑέσι ϰαὶ ἡμετέϱοις, ἃ ϰαὶ ἐσπουδασμένως παϱ᾽ ἐμοῦ ϰατήχηται. Πολλὰ γοῦν οὗτος εἶπέ τε ϰαὶ ἐπεσάφησεν ἄτοπα ϰαὶ δαιμόνια.
Καί ποτέ μου πυϑομένου εἴ τινές εἰσι δαίμονες ἐμπαϑεῖς, „Καὶ μάλα“, ἢ δ᾽ ὅς, „ὥστε ϰαὶ σπεϱμαένειν τούτων ἐνίους ϰαὶ σϰώλγϱεας ἀπογεννᾶσϑαι τοῖς σπέϱμασιν.“
„Ἀλλ᾽ ἄπιστον“, ἣν δ᾽ ἐγώ, „πεϱίττωσιν ἐνεῖναι δαίμοσι ϰαὶ μόϱια σπεϱμογόνα ϰαὶ ζωϊϰά.“
„Μόϱια μὲν αὐτοῖς“, ἢ δ᾽ ὅς, „οὖϰ ἔνεστι τοιαυτί᾽ πεϱίττωσις δέ τις ἔστιν ἐξ αὐτῶν, ϰαὶ λέγοντι πείϑου μοι.“
„Ἀτάϱ“, ἣν δ᾽ ἐγώ, „ϰίνδυνος αὐτοῖς ϰαὶ τϱέφεσϑαι ϰαϑ' ἡμᾶς;“
„Τϱέφονται“, ὁ Μάϱϰος εἶπεν, „οὗ μὲν δι’ εἰσπνοῆς, ὡς τὸ ἐν ἀϱτηϱίαις ϰαὶ ἐν νεύϱοις πνεῦμα, οἱ δὲ δι᾽ ὑγϱότητος, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ στόμασι ϰαϑ᾽ ἡμᾶς, ἀλλ᾽ ὥσπεϱ σπόγγοι ϰαὶ ὀστϱαϰόδεϱμα, σπῶντες μὲν τῆς παϱαϰειμένης ὑγϱότητος ἔξωϑεν, αὖἦϑις δὲ λαβοῦσαν σύστασιν σπεϱματωϰὴν ἀποϰϱίνοντες. Τοῦτο δὲ πάσχουσιν οὐ πάντες, ἀλλὰ μόνα τὰ πϱόσυλα δαιμόνων γένη, τό τε μισοφαὲς ϰαὶ τὸ ὑδϱαῖον ϰαὶ ὅσον ἐστὶν ὑποχϑόνιον.“
„Πολλὰ δ᾽ ἔστιν, ὦ Μάϱϰε, δαιμόνων γένη;“, ἀνηϱόμην αὖϑις.
„Πολλά“, ἢ δ᾽ ὅς, „ϰαὶ παντοδαπὰ τὰς ἰδέας τε ϰαὶ τὰ σώματα, ὡς εἶναι πλήϱη μὲν τὸν ἀέϱα τόν τε ὕπεϱϑεν ἡμῶν ϰαὶ τὸν πεϱὶ ἡμᾶς, πλήϱη δὲ γαῖαν ϰαὶ ϑάλατταν ϰαὶ τοὺς μυχαιτάτους ϰαὶ βυϑίους τόπους.“
„Ἀλλ᾽, εἴ τι μὴ ἐπαχϑές, ἀπαϱιϑμητέον ἕϰαστα“, ἔφην.
„Ἐπαχϑές“, ἢ δ᾽ ὅς, «ἅττα ἀπωσάμην, ταῦτα διὰ μνήμης ἄγειν, πλὴν οὐ παϱαιτητέον, σοῦ ϰελεύοντος.“
Οὕτω δῆτα εἰπών, πολλὰ δαιμόνων ἀπηϱίϑμησε γένη, πϱοστιϑεὶς ὀνόματά τε αὐτῶν ϰαὶ ἰδέας ϰαὶ τόπους οἷς διατϱίβουσι.
Τιμόϑεος Τί οὖν, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, ϰαὶ σὲ πϱὸς ἡμᾶς ταῦτα ἐπελϑεῖν ϰωλύει;
Θϱᾷξ Τὰ μὲν ϰατὰ μέϱος, ᾧ βέλτιστε, τῶν τηνιϰάδε λεχϑέντων οὔτε τότε μοι ϰατὰ λόγον ἐσπούδαστο ϰαὶ οὐδὲ νῦν ἐπὶ μνήμης ἄγω. Καὶ τί γὰϱ ἔμελλον ἀποίσεσϑαι ϰέϱδος, ὀνόματά τε αὐτῶν ϰαὶ ἢ αὐλίζεται γένος ἕϰαστον ϰαὶ οἷον ἰνδάλλεται ϰαὶ τίσι διαλλάττουσιν ἀλλήλων διαφοϱαῖς ἐϰφϱοντίσας ἔχειν; Διὸ ϰαὶ ὡς ἕωλα ταῦτα παϱῆϰα διαϱουήσασϑαι ἐϰ πολλῶν δ᾽ ὀλίγ᾽ ἄττα ϰατὰ νοῦν συνέχω ϰαὶ τούτων ὃ ἂν ζητήσῃς ἐϱωτῶν ἀϰούσῃ.
Τιμόϑεος Καὶ μὴν αὐτὸ τοῦτο πϱότεϱον βούλομαί γε μαϑεῖν, ὁπόσαι εἰσὶν αὖ δαιμόνων τάξεις.
Θϱᾷξ Ἓξ ϰαϑόλου ἐϰεῖνος εἶναι τῶν δαιμόνων ἔλεγε γένη, οὐϰ οἶδα εἴ γε τοῖς τόποις συνδιαιϱῶν ἐν οἷς διατϱίβουσιν, εἴτε τῷ φιλοσώματον εἶναι τὸ δαιμόνιον ἅπαν γένος, εἶναι δὲ ϰαὶ τὴν ἑξάδα σωματιϰὴν ϰαὶ ἐγϰόσμιον — ἐν αὐτῇ γάϱ εἰσιν αἱ σωματιϰαὶ πεϱιστάσεις ϰαὶ ὁ ϰόσμος ϰατ᾽ αὐτὴν συνέστη --, εἴτε τῷ πϱῶτον εἶναι τὸν ἀϱιϑμὸν τοῦτον τϱίγωνον σϰαληνόν, εἶναι δὲ τοῦ μὲν ἰσοπλεύϱου τὸ ϑεῖόν τε ϰαὶ οὐϱάνιον ὡς ἴσον ὃν ἑαυτῷ ϰαὶ πϱὸς ϰαϰίαν δυσϰίνητον, τοῦ δ᾽ ἰσοσϰελοῦς τὸ ἀνϑϱώπινον ὡς ϰαϑ᾽ ἕν σφαλλόμενον τὴν: πϱοαίϱεσιν, ἐϰ. μεταμελείας δ᾽ αὖ βελτιούμενον, τοῦ σϰαληνοῦ δὲ δὴ τὸ δαιμόνιον ὡς ἄνισον ϰαὶ μὴ συνεγγίζον ὅλως τῷ ἀγαϑῷ. Εϊτε οὖν οὕτως ᾧετ᾽ ἔχειν, εἴϑ᾽ ἑτέϱως, ἕξ ἐχεῖνος ἀπηϱίϑμησε γένη.
Καὶ πϱῶτον μέν, ὃ τῇ ἐπιχωϱίῳ γλώττῃ βαϱβαϱιϰῶς ὠνόμαζε Λελιούοιον, σημαίνοντος τοῦ ὀνόματος τὸ διάπυϱον, τοῦτο δὲ πεϱὶ τὸν ὕπεϱϑεν ἡμῶν ἀέϱα πεϱιπολεῖν: τῶν γὰϱ πεϱὶ σελήνην τόπων, ὡς ἐξ ἱεϱοῦ τι βέβηλον, ἀπεληλάσϑαι δαιμόνιον πᾶν. Δεύτεϱον δὲ τὸ πεϱὶ τὸν πϱοσεχέστατον ἡμῖν ἀέϱα πλαζόμενον, ὃ ϰαὶ ϰαλεῖσϑαι παϱὰ πολλοῖς ἰδίως ἀέϱιον. Τϱίτον δὲ ἐπὶ τούτοις τὸ χϑόνιον. Τέταϱτον, τὸ ὕδϱαῖόν τε ϰαὶ ἐνάλιον. Πέμπτον τὸ ὑποχϑόνιον. "Ἔσσχατον δὲ τὸ μισοφαὲς ϰαὶ δυσαίσϑητον. Εἶναι δὲ πάντα ταῦτα τῶν δαιμόνων γένη ϑεομισῇ ϰαὶ ἀνϑϱώποις πολέμια, πλὴν εἶναι ϰαὶ ϰαϰοῦ φασι ϰάϰιον: τὸ γὰϱ ὑδϱαῖόν τε ϰαὶ ὑποχϑόνιον, ἔτι δὲ ϰαὶ τὸ μισοφαὲς ἐσχάτως ἐπιχαιϱέϰαϰα ϰαὶ ὀλέϑϱια. Ταῦτα γὰϱ μὴ φαντασίαις ϰαὶ λογισμοῖς τὰς ψυχὰς ἔφη ϰαϰύνειν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐναλλόμενα ϰαϑάπεϱ τῶν ϑηϱίων τὰ ἀγϱιώτατα τῶν ἀνϑϱώπων ἐπισπεύδειν τὸν ὄλεϑϱον, τὸ μὲν ὑδϱαῖον ἀποπνίγον τοὺς πλαζομένους ἐν ὕδασι, τὸ δ᾽ ὑποχϑόνιον ϰαὶ τὸ μισοφαὲς ἐντός, εἰ συγχωϱοῦνται, πϱοσχωϱοῦντα τῶν σπλάγχνων, ϰαὶ οὗς ἂν τύχῃ ϰατασχόντα, ϰατάγχοντα ϰαὶ ἐπιλήπτους ϰαὶ ἔϰφϱονας ἐϱγαζόμενα" τοὺς δ᾽ ἀεϱίους τε ϰαὶ χϑονίους τέχνῃ ϰαὶ πεϱινοίᾳ μετιέναι ϰαὶ ἐξαπατᾶν τὰς τῶν ἀνϑϱώπων γνώμας ϰαὶ πϱὸς πάϑη ϰαϑέλϰειν ἄτοπα ϰαὶ παϱάνομα.
„Πῶς δέ“, εἶπον ἐγώ, „ϰαὶ τί ποιοῦντες ἐνεϱγοῦσι ταῦτα; Πότεϱον ϰατάϱχοντες ἡμῶν ϰαὶ οἵ ἂν βούλοιντο ϰαϑάπεϱ ἀνδϱάποδα πεϱιάγοντες“
„Οὐ ϰατάϱχοντες ἡμῶν“, ἢ δ᾽ ὃς ὁ Μάϱϰος, „ἀλλ᾽ εἰς ὑπόμνησιν ἄγοντες τῷ γὰϱ ἐν ἡμῖν φανταστυϰῷ συνεγγίζοντες πνεύματι, πνεύματα ϰαὶ αὐτοί γε ὄντες, τοὺς τῶν παϑῶν ϰαὶ τῶν ἡδονῶν ἐνηχοῦσι λόγους, οὐ φωνᾶς ἀφιέντες τὰς μετὰ πληγῶν ϰαὶ ψόφων, ἀλλ᾽ ἀψόφους τοὺς παϱ᾽ ἑαυτῶν ἐνιέντες λόγους.“
„Ἄποϱον“, ἔφην, „ἄνευ φωνῶν ἐνιέναι λόγους.“
„Οὐϰ ἄποϱον“, ἦ δ᾽ ὅς, „ἣν ἐϰεῖνο ἐνϑυμηϑῇς, ὡς ὁ λέγων, πόϱϱωϑεν ἐν ὦν,᾽ ἰσχυϱοτέϱας δεῖται ϰϱαυγῆς, ᾽ ἀγχοῦ δὲ γενόμενος, εἰς τὸ τοῦ ἀϰούοντος οὖς ψιϑυϱίζων ὑποφωνεῖ, ϰἂν ἐνὴν αὐτῷ συνεγγίσαι τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ψυχῆς, οὐδενὸς ἂν ἐδεήϑη, ψόφου, ἀλλ᾽ ἦν ὁ ϰατὰ βούλησιν λόγος ἀψόφῳ ϰελεύϑῳ πϱὸς τὸ δεχόμενον ἐγγινόμενος. ὍὍὉ φασι ϰἀν ταῖς ψυχαῖς ταῖς ἐξιούσαις τῶν σωμάτων εἶναι, ϰαὶ γὰϱ ϰαὶ ταύτας ἀπλύϱϰτως ὁμιλεῖν ἀλλήλαις. Τοῦτον δὲ τὸν τϱόπον ϰαὶ δαίμονες ποιοῦνται τὴν ὁμιλίαν λανϑάνοντες, ὡς μηδ᾽ ὁπόϑεν ἡμῖν ἐστιν ὁ πόλεμος συναισϑάνεσϑαι. Ἰζαὶ οὐ χϱή σε πεϱὶ τούτου διαποϱεῖν τὸ πεϱὲ τὸν ἀέϱα συμβαῖνον ϰατὰ νοῦν λαβόντα. Καϑάπεϱ γὰϱ ἀϰτῖνος οὔσης οὑτοσὶ χϱώματα ϰαὶ μοϱφὰς λαμβάνων εἰς τὰ πεφυϰότα δέχεσϑαι διαδίδωσιν ὡς ἐπὶ τῶν ἐνόπτϱων ϰαὶ τῶν σπέϰλων ὁϱᾶν ἔστιν, οὕτω δὴ ϰαὶ τὰ δαιμόνια σώματα, παϱὰ τῆς ἐν αὐτοῖς φανταστιεῆς οὐσίας δεχόμενα ϰαὶ σχήματα ϰαὶ χϱώματα ϰαὶ ὁποίας ἂν αὐτοὶ βούλωνται μοϱφάς, εἰς τὸ ψυχιϰὸν ϰαὶ ἡμέτεϱον πνεῦμα ταῦτα διαποϱϑμεύουσι ϰαὶ πολλὰ ἡἣμῖν ἐντεῦϑεν παϱέχουσι πϱάγματα, βουλὰς ὑποτιϑέντες, μοϱφὰς ὑποδειϰνύντες, ἀναϰινοῦντες μνήμας ἡδονῶν, εἴδωλα παϑῶν, ϑαμὰ παϱενοχλοῦντες ἐγϱηγοϱόσι τε ϰαὶ ϰαϑεύδουσιν: ἐνίοτε δὲ ϰαὶ τὰ ἐν ἡμῖν ὑπογάστϱια γαϱγαλισμοῖς ἐϱεϑίζοντες, εἰς ἐμμανεῖς ϰαὶ παϱανόμους ἔϱωτας ὑποϑήγουσι, ϰαὶ μάλιστα ἤν γε ϰαὶ τὰς ἐν ἡμῖν ἐνϑέϱμους ὑγϱότητας ὧτς ᾿ λάβωσι συνεϱγούς. ᾿Αλλ᾽ οὕτω μὲν οὗτοι τὴν Αἴδος ὑποδύντες ϰυνέην ἐπιταϱάττουσι τὰς ψυχὰς ξὺν τέχνῃ ϰαὶ μάλα σοφιστιϰῶς. Τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα δαιμόνων γένη σοφὸν μὲν οἶδεν οὐδέν, οὐδὲ ῥᾳδιουϱγεῖν ἐπίσταται, χαλεπὰ μέντοι ϰαὶ δεινῶς ἐστιν εἰδεχϑῇ ϰαὶ τὸν χαϱωνείου πνεύματος τϱόπον βλάπτοντα. Καϑάπεϱ γάϱ φασι διαφϑείϱειν τοῦτο πᾶν τὸ πϱοσπελάζον, ϰἂν τετϱάπουν, ϰἂν ἄνϑϱωπος, ϰἂν πτηνόν ἐστι, ϰατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν δὴ τϱόπον ϰαὶ τὰ δυσάντητα ταῦτα δαιμόνια λυμαίνεται δεινῶς οἷς ἂν εἰσπεσόντα τύχοι, δονοῦντά τε ϰαὶ σώματα ϰαὶ ψυχὰς ϰαὶ τὰς ϰατὰ φύσιν ἕξεις ἐϰτϱέποντα, ἔστι δ᾽ οὗ ϰαὶ πϱοσαπολλύντα πυϱὶἈΝ ϰαὶϰ᾿ ὕδατι ϰαὶ ϰϱημνῷ μὴ μόνον ἀνϑϱώπους, ἀλλὰ ϰαὶ τῶν ἀλόγων ἔνια ζῷων“.
„Τί δέ“, ἦν, „βούλεται τούτοις τὸ ϰαὶ ἀλόγοις ἐπεισπίπτειν ζῷοις; Καὶ γὰϱ ϰαὶ ϰατὰ τὴν Τ᾿έϱγεσαν πεϱὶ χοίϱους γεγονέναι τοῦτο τὰ ἄχϱαντα διδάσϰουσι λόγια. Πολέμια μὲν οὖν ἀνϑϱώποις ὄντα ϰαϰοῦν αὐτοῖς οὐδέν ἐστι ϑαυμαστόν, τοῦ δὲ ϰαὶ τοῖς ἀλόγοις ἐπεισπίπτειν ζῷοις τίς ὁ λόγος;“
Καὶ ὁ Μάϱϰος, „Οὐ διὰ μῖσος“, εἶπεν, „οὐδὲ τῷ βούλεσϑαι ϰαϰοῦν εἰς ἔνια τῶν ζῷων ἐφάλλεται, ἀλλ᾽ ἐφιέμενα ζωώδους ϑεϱμότητος" τοῖς γὰϱ μυχαιτάτοις τόποις συνδιαιτώμενα, ψυχϱοῖς ἐσχάτως ϰαὶ ἀνίϰμοις οὖσι, πολλῆς πληϱοῦται τῆς ἐϰεῖϑεν ἐμψύξεως, ὑφ᾽ ἧς πιλούμενα ϰαὶἃ; ϑλιβόμενα νοτεϱᾶς ἐϱξξ ϰαὶ ζωώδους ϑέϱμης ϰαί, ἵν’ ἀπολαύσῃ ταύτης, ϰαὶ ἀλόγοις ζῷοις ἐνσϰήπτει ϰαὶ ἐπὶ βαλανεῖα ϰαὶ βόϑϱους ἴεται᾽ τὴν γὰϱ τοῦ πυϱὸς ϰαὶ τὴν ἡλιαϰὴν ὡς ϰαυστιϰὴν ϰαὶ ξηϱαίνουσαν ἀποστϱέφεται, τὴν δὲ τῶν ζῷῴῷων ὡς σύμμετϱον οὖσαν ϰαὶ μεϑ᾽ ὑγϱότητος ἡδείας ἀσπάζεται ϰαὶ μάλιστα τὴν τῶν ἀνϑϱώπων ὅσον ϰαὶ εὔϰϱατον, εἰς οὗς εἰσϰϱινόμενα ϰλόνον οὐ μέτϱιον ἀπεϱγάζεται, τῶν πόϱων μὲν ἐν οἷς ἐνίδϱυται τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ψυχιϰὸν πληϱουμένων, ϰαὶ ὑπὸ τῆς τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς σωμάτων παχύτητος στενουμένου δὲ ϰαὶ διωϑουμένου τοῦ πνεύματος" ἐξ οὗ συμβαίνει ϰϱαδαίνεσϑαΐ τε τὰ σώματα ϰαὶ τὰς ἥγεμονυϰὰς δυνάμεις ϰαϰοπϱαγεῖν ἐμπλήϰτους τε τὰς ϰινήσεις ἀποτελεῖσϑαι ϰαὶ πλημμελεῖς. Κἂν μὲν τῶν ὑποχϑονίων ὁ ἐνσϰήψας ἢ, ϰϱαδαίνει . ϰαὶ παϱαφϑείϱει τὸν ϰατεχόμενον ϰαὶ φϑέγγεται δι᾽ αὐτοῦ, ϰαϑάπεϱ ἰδίῳ χϱώμενος ὀϱγάνῳ τῷ τοῦ πάσχοντος πνεύματι. Εῤ δέ τις τῶν λεγομένων μισοφαῶν ἐπεισφϱῆσας λάϑοι, πάϱεσιν ἐπάγει ϰαὶ φωνὴν ἐπέχει ϰαὶ ὅλως τὸν ἁλόντα νεϰϱῷ παϱαπλήσιον ἀπεϱγάζεται τουτὶ γὰϱ τὸ γένος, ὡς ἐν δαίμοσιν ἔσχατον ὄν, γεωδέστεϱόν ἐστι ψυχϱόν τε ϰαὶ ξηϱόν ἐσχάτως, ϰαὶ ὅτῳ ἂν εἰσπέσῃ λαϑόν, πᾶσαν δύναμιν ψυχυϰὴν ἀμβλύνει ϰαὶ ἀμαυϱοῖ’ ἀλόγιστον δὲ ὃν ϰαὶ πάσης νοεϱᾶς ϑεωϱίας ἀπολειπόμενον ἀλόγῳ τε διομεούμενον φαντασίᾳ, ϰαϑάπεϱ τῶν ϑηϱίων τὰ δυσμαϑέστεϱα, οὐ λόγων ϰαταϰούει, οὐϰ ἐπιτίμησιν δέδοιϰε ϰαὶ διὰ τοῦτο παϱὰ πολλοῖς εὐλόγως ἄλαλον ϰαὶ ϰωφὸν ϰαλεῖται. Καὶ τῶν ἁλόντων τις οὐϰ ἂν ἄλλως ἀπαλλάττοιτο, εἰ μὴ παϱὰ δυνάμεως ϑείας πϱοσευχῇ ϰαὶ νηστείᾳ πϱοσγινομένης.“
„Ἀλλ᾽ ὦ Μάϱϰε“, εἶπον, „ἕτεϱ᾽ ἄττα πείϑουσιν ἡμᾶς φϱονεῖν ἰχτϱῶν παῖδες, οὐ δαιμόνων ἔϰγονα τὰ πάϑη ταῦτα λέγοντες εἶναι, χυμῶν δὲ ϰαὶ αὐχμῶν ϰαὶ πνευμάτων μοχϑηϱῶς ἐχόντων. ᾿Αμέλει φαϱμάϰοις ϰαὶ διαιτήμασιν, ἀλλ᾽ οὐϰ ἐπῳδαῖς ϰαὶ ϰαϑαϱμοῖς ταῦτα ϑεϱαπεύειν ἀποπειϱῶνται.“
„Καὶ οὐδὲν ϑαυμαστόν“, ἢ δ᾽ ὃς ὃ Μάϱϰος, „εἰ ταῦτα λέγοιεν ἰατϱοί, μηδὲν εἰδότες ὑπὲϱ τὴν αἴσϑησιν, ἀλλ᾽ εἰς μόνα τὰ σώματα παϱαϰύπτοντες. Πλὴν ἐϰεῖνα ϰαλῶς εἶχεν οἴεσϑαι μοχϑηϱῶν ἔϰγονα χυμῶν, ϰάϱους, ϰώματα, μελαγχολίας, φϱενίτιδας, ἃ ϰαὶ παύουσιν ἐπαντλοῦντες ἣ ϰενοῦντες ἢ ἐπιπλάττοντες: ἐνϑουσιασμοὺς δὲ ϰαὶ μανίας ϰαὶ ϰατοχάς, ἐν οἷς ὁ μὲν ἁλοὺς οὐδέν ἐστιν οἷός τε ἐνεϱγεῖν οὔτε ϰατὰ νοῦν ϰαὶ λόγον, οὔτε ϰατὰ φαντασίαν ϰαὶ αἴσϑησιν, ἕτεϱον δέ ἐστι τὸ ϰινοῦν ϰαὶ ἄγον, λέγον τε ἅπεϱ ὁ ληφϑεὶς οὐϰ οἷδε ϰαί τι τῶν μελλόντων ἔστιν ὅτε πϱοαγοϱεῦον, πῶς ἂν ταῦτα φῶμεν ὅλης πλημμελεῖς ϰινήσεις;“
Τιμόϑεος Τί οὖν, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, ταῦτα λέγοντι τῷ Μάϱϰῳ ϰαὶ αὐτὸς ξυνάδεις;
Θϱᾷξ Πάνυ μὲν οὖν, Τιμόϑεε. Πῶς γὰϱ οὔ; Μεμνημένος ἐϰείνων ἃ πεϱὶ δαιμονώντων τὰ ϑεῖα διέξεισιν εὐαγγέλια ϰαὶ ὃ πεϱὶ τὸν Κοϱίνϑιον γέγονεν ἄνδϱα, Παύλου ϰελεύσαντος, ὁπόσα τε ταῖς τῶν πατέϱων δέλτοις ἐμφέϱεται πεϱὶ αὐτῶν πολλὰ ϰαὶ ϑαυμάσια, πϱοσέτι δὲ ϰαὶ ὧν αὐτὸς αὐτόπτης τε ϰαὶ αὐτήϰοος ἐν ᾿Ελασῶνι γέγονα.
Κατὰ τοῦτον γὰϱ ἀνήϱ τις ἐνεϱγούμενος δαίμονέ τῳ πολλὰ μὲν ϰαὶ ἄλλα χϱησμολογῶν ἀπεφοίβαζεν, οὐϰ ὀλίγα δὲ ϰαὶ πεϱὶ ἐμοῦ πϱοηγόϱευε’ πλῆϑος γάϱ ποτε τῶν τελουμένων παϱ᾽ αὐτῷ συστῆσας, „Ἴστε, ὦ παϱόντες“, ἔφη, „ἴστε μέλλειν ἄνδϱα ϰαϑ᾽ ἡμῶν ἐϰπεμφϑήσεσϑαι, παϱ᾽ οὗ διωχϑήσεται τὰ τῆς ἡμῶν ϑϱησχϰείας ϰαὶ τὰ τῆς λατϱείας ἐϰπεμφϑήσεται, τούτῳ δὲ μετὰ πολλῶν ϰαὶ αὐτὸς ἁλώσιμος ἔσομαι, πλὴν βουλομένῳ με δεσμώτην μετὰ πεῖϱαν πολλὴν εἰς τὸ Βυζάντιον ἀγαγεῖν οὐϰ ἐξέσται οἱ, ϰἂν πολλάϰις ϰάμῃ.“ Ταῦτα πϱοὔλεγε, μηδέπω μου μηδὲ τὰς παϱὰ τὸ Βυζάντιον παϱελϑόντος ϰώμας ὑπέγϱαφε δέ μου ϰαὶ τὸ σχῆμα ϰαὶ τὴν ἀναβολὴν ϰαὶ αὐτό μου τὸ ἐπιτήδευμα, ϰαὶ πολλοὶ φοιτῶντες ἐϰεῖϑεν ταῦτα ἀπήγγελλον. ᾿Οψὲ δ᾽ αὐτὸν ἐγὼ ϰατασχών, ἠϱόμην ὁπόϑεν τὸ πϱολέγειν αὐτῷ πεϱιγέγονε. Μὴ ϑέλων δ᾽ ἐξενεγϰεῖν τὸ ἀπόϱϱητον, ὅμως τὴν λαϰωνωϰὴν πεπονϑὼς ἀνάγϰην τἀληϑὲς ἐξεῖπε. Τελεσϑῆναι μὲν γὰϱ τὰ δαιμόνια ἔϱγα παϱά τινος ἀλήτου Λίβυος ἔφη, „ὅς με νύϰτωϱεἰς ὄϱος ἀπαγαγὼν ϰαί τινος βοτάνης μετασχεῖν ϰελεύσας, ἐμπτύσας τέ μου τῷ στόματι ϰαὶ ἐγχϱίσματά τινα πεϱιχϱίσας τὼ ὀφϑαλμὼ παϱέσχεν ὁϱᾶν δαιμονίων πλῇϑος, ἐξ ὧν οἷον ϰόϱαϰός τινος ἠσϑόμην ἐπιπτάντος ϰαὶ τοῦ στόματος ὑποδύντος ἔνδον. Ἔξ ἐϰείνου δὲ ϰαὶ εἰς δεῦϱό μοι πϱολέγειν ἐπέϱχεται πεϱὶ ὧν ἂν ϰαὶ ὁπότε βούλοιτο τὸ ϰινοῦν. ΚΚατὰ γὰϱ τὰς σταυϱωσίμους τῶν ἡμεϱῶν ϰαὶ αὐτὴν τὴν παϱ᾽ ὑμῖν σεπτὴν ἀναστάσιμον, οὐδὲν οὐδ᾽ ἂν πολλὰ πϱοϑυμῶμαι, πϱοηχεῖν ἐϑέλει.“ Ταῦτ᾽ ἀπήγγελλεν. ᾿Επεὶ δ᾽ αὐτόν τις τῶν ἐφεπομένων ἐμοὶ ϰατὰ ϰόϱϱης πέπαιϰε, „Σὺ μέν“, εἶπεν, „οὐϰ εἰς μαϰϱὰν ἀντὶ μιᾶς μάστιγος ἀπολήψῃη πλείους" σὺ δέ“, στϱαφεὶς πϱὸς ἐμέ, „μεγάλων ἐν χϱῷ συμφοϱῶν γενήσῃ χολᾷ γάϱ σοι δεινῶς τὰ δαιμόνια. παϱαλύοντι τὰς αὐτῶν λατϱείας. ᾿Αμέλει τοι ϰαὶ χαλεποὺς ἐπιϱϱάψουσι ϰαὶ βαϱεῖς ϰινδύνους, οὖς οὐϰ ἂν διαφεύξεσϑαι δυνηϑείης, εἰ μή τίς σε δύναμις ϰϱείττων ἣ ϰατὰ δαίμονας ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐξέλῃ.“
Ταῦτά μοι τὸ ϰάϑαϱμα ϰαϑάπεϱ ἀπὸ τϱίποδος χϱησμοδοτοῦν ἀπεφοίβαζε. Πάντα γὰϱ ἐγίνετο ϰαὶ ἀπέβαινεν, ἐμοί τε ὀλίγου ἔδει συναπολέσϑαι, ϰινδύνων ἀπηντηϰότων ὅτι πολλῶν, ὧν με παϱαδόξως ὁ Σωτὴϱ ἀφήϱπασε. Τίς οὖν, ἐϰεῖνον τὸν χϱησμὸν ἑωϱαϰὼς ὥσπεϱ μαγάδα τοῖς ἐνηχοῦσι δαιμονίοις γινόμενον, ἐϱεῖ τὰς μανίας πάσας ὕλης εἶναι πλημμελεῖς ϰινήσεις, ἀλλὰ μὴ πάϑη τϱαγιϰὰ δαιμόνων;
Τιμόϑεος Οὐδὲν ϰαινόν, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, εἰ ταῦτα παῖδες ἰατϱῶν φϱονοῦσιν, ὁπόσοι μηδὲν τοιοῦτον συνεωϱάϰασι" ϰἀμοὶ γὰϱ οὕτω πϱότεϱον ἐπήει φϱονεῖν, μέχϱις οὗ μοι συνέπεσεν ἰδεῖν τι τεϱατῶδες ἀτεχνῶς ϰαὶ ἀλλόϰοτον, ὅ σοι νῦν οὐϰ ἄϰαιϱόν ἐστι διηγήσασϑαι. Πάντως δ᾽ ἂν οὐ ψευσαίμην ἀνὴϱ πϱεσβύτης, εἰς τοῦτο πεϱιστήσας ἐμαυτὸν τὸ τϱιβώνιον.
Ἐτύγχανέ μοι πϱεσβύτεϱος ἀδελφός, ὃς γυναιϰὶ ξυνὴν τἄλλα μὲν σώφϱονι, δυστόϰῳ δὲ λίαν ϰαὶ νόσους ἐξαλλαττομένῃ παντοδαπάς. Αὕτη λεχώ ποτε γενομένη πονηϱῶς εἶχε ϰαὶ ἐσχάτως παϱέϰοπτε τόν τε χιτῶνα πεϱιϱϱηγνῦσα βάϱβαϱόν τινα γλῶσσαν ἐπετϱόχαζεν ἀλαλάζουσα, ϰαὶ ἣ γλῶττα τοῖς ἐϰεῖ παϱατυχοῦσιν οὐϰ ἐπίδηλος ἦν. ᾿Αμέλει ϰαὶ πάντες ἐν ἀποϱίᾳ πεϱιειστήϰεσαν, οὐϰ ἔχοντες ἐν ἀμηχάνῳ ϰαϰῷ τοσούτῳ δϱάσειν οὐδέν. Γυναῖϰες δέ τινες — ϰαὶ γάϱ εἶσι γένος εὑϱετυϰὸν ϰαὶ πϱὸς τὸ συμπίπτον ἀνυσιμώτατον — ἄγουσιν ἄνδϱα ξένον ἀναφαλαντίαν, ἀϰϱιβῶς πϱεσβύτην, ῥυσσὸν τὸ δέϱμα ϰαὶ διαϰεϰαυμένον ἐς τὸ μελάντατον, ὃς γυμνὸν ἐσπασμένος ξίφος, ἀγχοῦ παϱαστὰς τῆς ϰλίνης, δι’ ὀϱγῆς τὴν νοσοῦσαν εἶχε ϰαὶ ϰατὰ τὴν ἐπιχώϱιον αὐτῷ γλῶτταν -- ἐξ ᾿Αϱμενίων γὰϱ ἦν — πολλὰ εἰς ταύτην ἐφύβϱιζεν. Ἢ δὲ ϰαὶ αὐτὴ ϰατ᾿ αὐτὴν αὐτῷ τὴν γλῶτταν ἠμείβετο. Καὶ τὸ μὲν πϱῶτον ἀπεϑϱασύνετό τε ϰαὶ τῆς ϰλίνης ἀφοϱμῶσα φιλονείϰως εἴχεν᾽ ὡς δ᾽ ὁ βάϱβαϱος ἐπιπλέον τοῖς ἀφοϱϰισμοῖς ἐχϱῆτο ϰαὶ οἷα μελαγχολῶν ἠπειλεῖτο παίειν, ἐνταῦϑα τὸ γύναιον συσταλὲν ὑπότϱομόν τε ἐγίνετο ϰαὶ ταπεινὰ φϑεγγόμενον εἰς ὕπνον ϰατέδαϱϑεν. μεϊς δὲ τεϑηπότες Ἦμεν, οὐχ ὅτι μεμήνει — τοῦτο γὰϱ ὁϱῶμεν πανταχοῦ συμβαῖνον—, ἀλλ᾽ ὅτι ϰατ᾽ ᾿Αϱμενίους ἐφϑέγγετο, γυνὴ μηδέποτε μηδ᾽ εἰς ὄψιν ἀφιγμένη τούτοις, μηδὲ ϑαλάμου ϰαὶ ϰεϱϰίδος εἰδυῖα πλέον οὐδέν. Σωφϱονήσασαν γοῦν ἐπυϑόμην τί πεπόνϑοι ϰαὶ εἴ τι τοῖς γενομένοις παϱηϰολούϑηϰεν. Ἢ δὲ δαιμόνιον ἔφη φάσμα σϰιοειδὲς ϰαὶ γυναιϰὶ πϱοσεμφεϱὲς ἠνεμωμένας ἔχον τὰς ϰόμας ἐπιὸν ἰδεῖν ἐπ᾽ ἐμέ’ δείσασα δὲ πϱηνὴς ἐμπεσεῖν τῇ ϰλίνῃ τὸ δ᾽ ἐντεῦϑεν τῶν γενομένων οὐδενὸς αἰσϑέσϑαι.
Ἡ μὲν οὖν οὕτως εἶπε ϰαὶ ἀπηλλάττετο’ ἐμὲ δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε δεσμός τις ἀποϱίας ἔχει διαποϱούμενον πῶς τὸ τῇ γυναιϰὶ παϱενοχλῆσαν δαιμόνιον ἑωϱᾶτο ϑῆλυ — ϰαὶ γὰϱ ἐπιεωςῶς ἐστιν ἄποϱον, εἰ δαιμονίων τὰ μὲν ἔστιν ἄϱϱενα, τὰ δὲ ϑήλεα, ϰαϑάπεϱ τὰ γηγενῆ ϰαὶ ϑνητὰ τῶν ζῴων—, δεύτεϱον δὲ πῶς τῇ τῶν Ἀϱμενίων συνεχϱῆτο γλώττῃ — πολὺ γὰϱ ϰἄν τούτῳ τὸ πϱόσαντες, εἰ δαιμόνων οὗ μὲν ᾿Ἑλληνίσιν, οἱ δὲ Χαλδαϊϰαῖς, ἄλλοι δὲ Πεϱσῶν τε ϰαὶ Σύϱων ἀποχϱῶνται γλώτταις—, ἔτι δὲ πῶς πϱὸς τὰς ἀπειλὰς τοῦ γόητος ὑπεστέλλετο ϰαὶ τὸ ξίφος ἐδεδίει ἀνατεινόμενον' τί γὰϱ ἂν ϰαὶ πάϑοι διὰ ξίφους δαίμων, ἄτμητός τε ϰαὶ ἄφϑαϱτος ὦν; Ταῦτά με πάνυ διαταϱάττει ϰαὶ ϑοϱυβεῖ ϰαί μοι δεῖ τινος ἐπὶ τούτοις παϱαμυϑίας, ἣν ἡγοῦμαί σε μᾶλλον ἱϰανὸν παϱέξειν, ἅτε ϰαὶ τὰς τῶν παλαιῶν ξυνῃϱηϰότα δόξας ϰαὶ πολλὴν ἱστοϱίαν συνειληφότα.
Θϱᾷξ Βουλοίμην ἄν, ὦ Τιμόϑεε, λόγους ἀποδοῦναι πεϱὲ ὧν πυνϑάνῃ, πλὴν δέδια μὴ δόξαιμεν πεϱιττοὶ ϰαὶ ἄμφω, σὺ μὲν ἃ μηδεὶς ἐξήταϰε συζητῶν, ἐγὼ δὲ ταῦτα λέγειν ἀποπειϱώμενος ἃ ἐχϱῆν ἐν ἀποϱϱήτῳ πεϱιοϱᾶν, ἄλλως τε εἰδὼς ϰαὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα τοῖς πολλοῖς εὐδιάβολα. Πλήν, ἐπεὶ ϰατὰ τὸν ᾿Αντίγονον πϱοσήϰει φίλοις ἐφιέναι μηδὲ τὰ ῥᾷστα μόνον, ἀλλ᾽ ἔσϑ᾽ ὅπη ϰαί τι τῶν δυσχεϱῶν, πειϱάσομαι ϰαὶ αὐτὸς τὸν δεσμόν σοι λῦσαι, διαμασσώμενος τῶν παϱὰ Μάϱϰου λόγων τὰς ἀφοϱμάς.
Ἔφη γὰϱ ἐϰεῖνος μηδὲν δαιμόνιον γένος ἄϱσεν ἢ ϑῆλυ ϰατὰ φύσιν εἶναι· συνϑέτων γὰϱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάϑη, ἁπλᾶ δὲ δὴ τὰ δαιμόνια σώματα. Εὐάγωγα δὲ γε ὄντα ϰαὶ εὐϰαμπὴῇ πϱὸς πάντα σχηματισμόν εἰσιν εὐφυᾶ: ϰαϑάπεϱ γὰϱ ϰαὶ τὰς νεφέλας ὁϱᾶν ἔστιν, ὅτε μὲν ἀνϑϱώπων, ὅτε δὲ ἄϱϰτων, ὅτε δὲ δϱαϰόντων ἤ τινῶν ἑτέϱων ἀποτελούσας σχηματισμούς, οὕτω δὴ ϰαὶ τὰ δαιμόνια σώματα. Πλὴν ταῖς μὲν παϱὰ τῶν ἔξωϑεν πνευμάτων ϰινουμέναις οἱ πολυειδεῖς ἀποτελοῦνται σχηματισμοί, δαίμοσι δὲ παϱὰ τῆς ἐν αὐτοῖς πϱοαιϱέσεως πϱὸς οἷον ἂν αὐτοὶ βούλοιντο τῶν σωμάτων μεταγομένων, ϰαὶ νῦν μὲν εἰς ὄγϰον ἥττω συστελλομένων, νῦν δὲ αὖ εἰς μεῖζον μῆϰος ἐϰτεινομένων, ὡς ἐπὶ τῶν τῆς γῆς ἐντέϱων ὁϱῶμεν γινόμενον διὰ τὸ τῆς οὐσίας μαλαϰὸν ϰαὶ εὐάγωγον. Οὐ μόνον δὲ ϰατὰ μέγεϑος ὑπαλλάττεται, ἀλλὰ ϰαὶ ϰατὰ σχῆμα ϰαὶ χϱῶμα πολυειδῶς— πϱὸς ἄμφω γάϱ ἐστι τὸ σῶμα τὸ δαιμόνιον εὐφυές—, ὡς μὲν εὔειϰτον εἰς εἴδη σχημάτων μετατυπούμενον, ὡς δ᾽ ἀεϱῶδες χϱωμάτων ὃν δεϰτιϰὸν παντοίων ὥσπεϱ ἀήϱ. ᾿Αλλ᾽ ἀὴϱ μὲν ἔξωϑέν ποϑεν χϱώννυται, τουτὶ δὲ τὸ σῶμα παϱὰ τῆς ἐν αὐτῷ φανταστιϰῇῆς ἐνεϱγείας πϱοϊσχούσης εἰς αὐτὸ τὰ χϱωμάτων εἴδη. Καϑάπεϱ γὰϱ ἡμῶν φοβηϑέντων ὦχοος εἷλε παϱειὰς ϰαὶ αἰδεσϑέντων αὖϑις ἐϱύϑημα, τῆς ψυχῆς, ὅτε τοίως ἣ τοίως διάϰειται, πϱοϊσχούσης εἰς τὸ σὥμα τὰ τοιαῦτα πάϑη, ϰατὰ ταῦτα δὴ ϰαὶ τὰ πεϱὶ τοὺς δαίμονας δεῖ νομίζειν: ἔνδοϑεν γὰϱ ϰαὶ οὗτοι πϱὸς τὰ σφέτεϱα σώματα διαπέμπουσι τὰ χϱωμάτων εἴδη. Διὸ ϰαὶ ἕϰαστός γε αὐτῶν, τό τε σῶμα πϱὸς ὃ ἂν αἱϱοῖτο σχῆμα μετατυπώσος ϰαὶ χϱώματός τινος εἶδος πϱὸς τὸ τοῦ σώματος ἐξανίσχων πέϱας, ποτὲ μὲν ὡς ἀνὴϱ ἐμφανίζεται, ποτὲ δὲ πϱὸς γυναίου μεταβάλλει μοϱφήν, ὡς λέων τε ϑυμοῦται ϰαὶ ὡς πάϱδαλις ἅλλεται ϰαὶ σῦς ὥσπεϱ ἄγϱιος ἐφοϱμᾷ᾽ ϰἂν αὐτῷ ποτε δόξῃ, ϰαὶ πϱὸς ἀσϰοῦ μεταπίπτει σχῆμα ϰαὶ ϰυνάϱιον ἔσϑ᾽ ὅπη πϱοσϰνυζόμενον ἔδοξε. Καὶ πάσας ταύτας τὰς μοϱφὰς ἀμείβων, οὐδεμίαν τούτων ἔμμονον ἔχει" οὐδὲ γάϱ ἔστι στεϱϱὸν τὸ σῶμα τουτὶ τὸ δαιμόνιον ὥστε στέγειν ἐν ἑαυτῷ τὰ ληφϑέντα εἴδη. ᾿Αλλ᾽ ὃ συμβαίνειν φιλεῖ ἐπ᾽ ἀέϱος φέϱε ϰαὶ ὕδατος, ϰἂν χϱῶμα ἐγχέῃς, ϰἂν σχῆμα ἐγγϱάψῃς, εὐϑὺς διαχεῖται ϰαὶ διαλύεται, τοῦτο δὴ τὸ πάϑος ϰαὶ ἐπὶ δαιμόνων ὁϱᾶν ἔστι, ϰαὶ γὰϱ ϰαὶ ἐπὶ τούτων διολισϑαίνει ϰαὶ χϱῶμα ϰαὶ σχῆμα ϰαὶ εἶδος ὁτιοῦν τῶν ὄντων.
Ταῦτα, Τιμόϑεε, ὁ Μάϱϰος, ὡς ἐμὲ εἰϰάσαι, πιϑανῶς διεῖλε, ϰαί σε τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε μηδεὶς ταϱαττέτω λόγος, ὡς δαίμοσιν ἐνούσης τῆς ϰατὰ τὸ ἄϱϱεν ϰαὶ ϑῆλυ διαφοϱᾶς" ταῦτα γὰϱ ἐν τούτοις μέχϱι τοῦ φαίνεσϑαι, μόνιμον δὲ ϰαὶ ϰαϑ᾽ ἕξιν τούτων οὐδὲν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἐστι. Διὸ ϰαὶ τὸ τῇ λεχοῖ παϱενοχλῇσαν δαιμόνιον, εἰ γυναιξὶν ἐμφεϱὲς ὥϱᾶτο, μὴ τοιοῦτον εἶναι ϰαὶ ϰαϑ᾽ ἕξιν οἴου, μόνον δὲ σχῆμα γυναΐου πϱοβάλλεσϑαι.
Τιμόϑεος Πῶς δέ, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, οὐϰ ἄλλοτε πϱὸς ἄλλο ϰαὶ ἄλλο σχῆμα μεταχωϱεῖ, ϰαϑάπεϱ οἱ ἄλλοι δαίμονες, ἀλλὰ τοιοῦτον ἐς ἀεὶ ὁϱᾶται: Καὶ γὰϱ πολλῶν ϰαταϰούσας ἔχω ϑηλύμοϱφον πάσαις ταῖς λεχοῖς ὁϱᾶσϑαι.
Θϱᾷξ Καὶ τούτου, Τιμόϑεε, τὴν αἰτίαν ὁ Μάϱϰος οὐϰ ἀπίϑανον ἀποδέδωϰεν ἔφη γὰϱ μὴ πάντας δαίμονας δυνάμεως ϰαὶ βουλήσεως τῆς αὐτῆς μετέχειν, ἀλλ᾽ εἶναι πολλὴν αὐτῶν ϰἀν τούτῳ παϱαλλαγήν᾽ ἄλογον γὰϱ ἔχειν ὡς ἐπὶ τῶν ϑνητῶν ϰαὶ συνϑέτων ζῴων: ὡς γὰϱ ἐν τούτοις ἄνϑϱωπος μὲν μετέχων δυνάμεως νοεϱᾶς τε ϰαὶ ἔμφϱονος, ἔτι τε ϰαὶ τὴν φανταστωεὴν ὁλιϰωτέϱαν ἔχει πϱὸς πάντα σχεδὸν ἐξηπλωμένην τὰ αἰσϑητά, τά τε ϰατ᾽ οὐϱανὸν ϰαὶ ὅσα πεϱὶ γῆν τε ϰαὶ ἐπὶ γῆς ἵππος δὲ ϰαὶ βοῦς ϰαὶ τὰ τούτοις ὁμόστοιχα μεϱιϰωτέϱαν ϰαὶ πϱὸς ἔνια τῶν φανταστῶν ἐνεϱγοῦσαν, τὰ σύννομα ϰαὶ τὴν φάτνην ϰαὶ τοὺς ϰτησαμένους γινώσϰουσαν᾽ ἐμπίδες δὲ ϰαὶ μυῖαι ϰαὶ σϰώληϰες ἀπεστενωμένην ἔχουσι ταύτην ϰαὶ ἀδιάϱϑϱωτον, μήτε ὀπὴν εἰδότος ἑϰάστου τούτων ἧς ἐξελήλυϑε, μήτε τόπον οἵ ποϱεύεται ϰαὶ οὗ δεῖ πϱοσάγειν, μίαν δὲ μόνην ἔχοντος φαντασίαν τὴν τῆς τϱοφῆς οὕτω δὴ ϰαὶ πεϱὶ τὰ τῶν δαιμόνων πολυχεύμονα φῦλα. Καὶ γὰϱ ϰἀν τούτοις οἱ μὲν ἐμπύϱιοι ϰαὶ ἀέϱιοι, πολυσχεδῇ ϰεϰτημένοι τὴν φαντασίαν, πϱὸς ὅ ποτε εἶδος φανταστιϰὸν αἱϱοῦνται, πϱὸς τοῦτο ἑαυτοὺς μεταμοϱφοῦσιν. “Ὑπεναντίως δὲ τούτοις τὸ μισοφαὲς ἔχει γένος: πάνυ γὰϱ πεϱὶ τὸ φανταστιϰὸν ἀπεστένωται: διὸ ϰαὶ μοϱφὰς οὐϰ ἀμείβει πλείους, ἅτε μηδ᾽ ἔχον εἴδη φαντασμάτων πλείω, μηδὲ τὸ σῶμα ϰεϰτημένον εὐπετὲς ϰαὶ παλίμβολον. Ὑδϱαῖοι δὲ ϰαὶ χϑόνιοι, τῶν εἰϱημένων μέσοι τυγχάνοντες, δύνανται μὲν μοϱφὰς ἐξαλλάττειν πλείους, πλὴν αἷς ποτε χαίϱουσι, ταύταις ὡς ἐπίπαν ἐμμένουσιν. Ὅσοι μὲν γὰϱ ἐν ὑγϱοῖς βιοῦσι ϰαὶ τὴν μαλϑαϰωτέϱαν στέϱγουσιν ἀγωγὴν ὄϱνισί τε ϰαὶ γυναιξὶν ἀμφεϱεῖς ἑαυτοὺς ποιοῦσι· διὸ ϰαὶ Ναΐδας τούτους ϰαὶ Νηϱηΐδας ϰαὶ Δϱυάδας ϑηλυϰῶς ϰαλοῦσιν Ἑλλήνων παῖδες. Ὅσοι δὲ τόποις ἐνδιατϱίβουσιν αὐχμηϱοῖς ὑπόξηϱά τε τὰ σώματα ἔχουσιν, οἵους τοὺς ὀνοσϰελεῖς φασιν εἶναι, εἰς ἄνδϱας οὗτοι σχηματίζουσιν ἑαυτούς: ἔστι δ᾽ ὅτε ϰαὶ ϰυσὶ ϰαὶ λέουσι ϰαὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ὁμοιοῦνται ζῴοις, ἐν ὅσοις ἦϑος ἀϱϱενωπόν ἐστιν. Οὐδὲν οὖν ἄποϱον εἰ ϰαὶ τὸ ταῖς λεχοῖς ἐνσϰῆπτον δαιμόνιον ϑηλύμοϱφον ὁϱᾶται, μάχλον ὄν ϰαὶ ὑγϱότησιν ἀϰαϑάϱτοις χαῖϱον τῷ γὰϱ ϰεχαϱισμένῳ βίῳ ϰατάλληλον μοϱφὴν ὑποδύεται.
Τό τε ϰατ᾽ Ἀϱμενίους φϑέγγεσϑαι Μάϱϰος μὲν οὐϰ ἐσάφησεν᾽ οὐ γὰϱ ἐζήτηται παϱ᾽ ἡμῶν. Οἶμαι δ᾽ εἶναι τοῦτο ϰαὶ ἐντεῦϑεν δῆλον, ὅτι γλῶτταν μὲν ἰδίαν δαιμόνων ἐφευϱεῖν οὐϰ ἔσται, ϰἂν ἑβϱαϊϰήν τις εἴποι, ϰἂν ἑλληνίδα, ϰἂν σύϱαν ϰαὶ τὴν ἄλλην βάϱβαϱον. Τί γὰϱ ἔδει φωνῇς τοῖς ἄνευ φωνῇς ὁμιλοῦσιν, ὡς ϰαὶ πϱόσϑεν εἶπον; ᾿Επεὶ δέ, ϰαϑάπεϱ ἐν ἀγγέλοις ἐϑνῶν ἑτέϱοις ἕτεϱοι πϱοεστήϰασιν, οὕτω ϰαὶ δαίμονες ἐν ἔϑνεσιν ἄλλοι ἄλλοις συμπαϱεδϱεύουσιν, ἕϰαστοι τὰς ἑϰάστων ἐξασϰοῦσι γλώττας, ἐφ᾽ ᾧ ϰαὶ τούτοις οἱ μὲν παϱ᾽ “Ἕλλησιν ἐχϱησμῴδουν ἡϱωϊϰεῶς, οἱ δὲ παϱὰ Χαλδαίοις τὰς ϰλήσεις εἶχον τῇ Χαλδαίων γλώττῃ, ὥσπεϱ ϰαὶ παϱ᾽ Αἰγυπτίοις τὰς παϱεδϱείας αἰγυπτίαις ἐποιοῦντο φωναῖς, ϰαὶ δὴ ϰαὶ τὰ παϱ᾽ ᾿Αϱμενίοις δαιμόνια, ϰἂν ἀλλαχόσε ἀπιόντα τύχοι, τῇ γλώττῃ τούτων ὥσπεϱ ἰϑαγενεῖ ϰαὶ αὐτὰ πϱοσχϱῶνται.
Τιμόϑεος Εἶεν, ὦ Θϱᾷξ. Ἀλλὰ τὰς ἀπειλὰς ϰαὶ τὸ ξίφος τί παϑόντα δέδις; Τί γὰϱ οἰόμενα πείσεσϑαι παϱ᾽ αὐτῶν ὑποστέλλεται ϰαὶ ἀφίσταται;
Θϱᾷξ Οὔ σοι μόνῳ, Τιμόϑεε, πεϱὲ τούτων νῦν ἀποϱεῖν ἐπῆλϑεν, ἀλλὰ πϱότεϱον ϰἀμοὶ πϱὸς Μάϱϰον ἠπόϱηται, ϰαὶ ὅς μου τὸ ἄποϱον ἐξιώμενος, πάντα μὲν ἔφη τὰ δαιμόνια φῦλα ϑϱάσους ϰαὶ δειλίας ἔμπλεα εἶναι, πλέον δὲ δὴ τῶν ἄλλων τὰ πϱόσυλα. Γὰ μὲν γὰϱ ἀέϱια, πεϱίνοιαν ϰεϰτημένα πλείστην, ἂν ἐπιτιμῴη τις, τὸν γοῦν ἐπιτιμῶντα διαϰϱίνειν οἶδε ϰαὶ τῶν ἐνοχλουμένων οὐϰ ἀπαλλάττεται ἄλλως, εἰ μὴ οὗτος ὅσιός τε εἴη τὰ πϱὸς Θεὸν -ϰαὶ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Θεοῦ Λόγου τὸ φϱιϰτὸν ἐπάδοι σὺν δυνάμει ϑείᾳ. Ταῦτα δὲ δηλαδὴ τὰ πϱόσυλα, δεδιότα τὴν εἰς τὰς ἀβύσσους ϰαὶ τὴν εἰς τοὺς ὑποχϑονίους τόπους ἀποπομποῆν, ἔτι τε τοὺς ἀγγέλους τοὺς εἰς αὐτοὺς ἀποπέμποντας, ὁπότε τις ἀπειλοίη τούτοις τὴν εἰς ἐϰείνους τοὺς τόπους ἀπαγωγὴν ϰαὶ τὰς τῶν εἰς τοῦτο τεταγμένων ἀγγέλων ἐπιλέγοι ϰλήσεις, δέδις ϰαὶ ταϱάττεται λίαν. ὑπ᾽ ἀνοίας γὰϱ οὐδὲ τὸν ἀπειλοῦντα δύναται διαϰϱίνειν. ᾿Αλλὰ ϰἂν γϱαῦς τις εἴη, ϰἂν ἀγέϱωχόν τι γεϱάνδϱιον ταύτας σχεδιάζῃ τὰς ἀπειλάς, δέος αὐτὰ λαμβάνει ϰαὶ ἀπαλλάττεται πολλάϰις, ὡς ταῦτα δυναμένων τῶν ἀπειλούντων εἰς τέλος ἐξενεγϰεῖν. οὕτως ἐστὶ πεϱιδεῆ τε ϰαὶ ἀδιάϰϱιτα. Διὸ ϰαὶ ῥᾷστα χειϱοῦται τοῖς πεϱιττώμασι, λέγω δὴ σιέλοις ϰαὶ ὄνυξι ϰαὶ ϑϱιξί, παϱὰ τοῦ μιαϱοῦ τῶν γοήτων γένους, ϰαὶ μολύβδῳ ϰαὶ ϰηϱῷ ϰαὶ λεπτῇ πϱοδεϑέντα μίτῳ διὰ τῶν ἀϑεμίτων ἀφοϱϰισμῶν πάϑη τϱαγιϰὰ ϰατεϱγάζονται.
„Τί οὖν τοιούτους ὄντας αὐτοὺς σύ τε ϰαὶ πολλοὲ τῶν ἄλλων ἐσέβεσϑε“, εἶπον ἐγώ, „δέον τῆς αὐτῶν ἀδϱανείας πεϱιφϱονεῖν;“
„Οὐϰ ἐγώ“, ἢ δ᾽ ὃς ὁ Μάϱϰος, „ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἄλλος, οἶμαι, ὅτῳ ϰαὶ μετϱίως μέτεστι νοῦ, τοῖς ἐπαϱάτοις πϱοσανέσχε τούτοις" γόητες δὲ μᾶλλον ϰαὶ ἀποφϱάδες ἄνδϱες ταῦτα μειλίσσονται. Ἡμῶν δὲ ὅσοι τῶν ἀϑεμίτων ἔϱγων ἀπείχοντο ϑεϱαπεύοντες ἦμεν μάλιστα τὰ ἀέϱια ϰαὶ ταῖς εἰς αὐτὰ ϑυσίαις ἀπηυχόμεϑα παϱεισφϱῇσαΐί τι δαιμόνιον ὕποχϑόνιον᾽ εἰ γὰϱ ἔτυχέ τι τοιοῦτον παϱαδυὲν πϱὸς τὸ δεῖμα ἐμποιεῖν, ϰαὶ λίϑοις ϰαταλεῦον ἦνἴδιον γὰϱ τῶν ὑποχϑονίων τοῦτο ϰαὶ ϰαταλεύειν τοὺς πϱοστυχόντας βολαῖς ἀδϱανέσι σφόδϱα. Διὰ τοῦτο ϰαὶ τὴν ἔντευξιν τούτων ἀποτϱεπόμεϑα.“
„Ἀλλὰ τί γε“, ἔφην, „τῆς πεϱὶ τὰ ἀέϱια λατϱείας ἀπώνασϑε;“
„Οὐδὲν οὐδὲ τούτων“, εἶπεν, „ὦ γενναῖε, χϱηστόν, ὅτι ϰαὶ τὰ τούτων πεϱιαυτολογία ϰαὶ τύφος ἀπάτη τε ϰαὶ φαντασία διάϰενος. Ἀφιυϰνοῦνται μὲν γὰϱ ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τοὺς ϑϱησϰεύοντας αὐγαὶ πυϱώδεις, οἷαι δή τινες αὲ τῶν διχττόντων ὑποδϱομαΐί, ἃς ϑεοπτίας οἱ μεμηνότες ἀξιοῦσι ϰαλεῖν, οὐδὲν ἐχούσας ἀληϑές, οὐδ᾽ ἑστηϰός, οὐδὲ βέβαιον - τί γὰϱ ἐν δαίμοσιν ἐζοφωμένοις οὖσι φωτοειδές: — ἀλλὰ παίγνια τούτων οὔσας, οἷα τὰ ἐν ταῖς τῶν ὀμμάτων παϱαγωγαῖς ἣ τὰ παϱὰ τῶν ϰαλουμένων ϑαυματοποιῶν ἐπ᾽ ἐξαπάτῃ τῶν ὁϱώντων γινόμενα. Καὶ ταῦϑ᾽ ὁ δείλαιος ἐγὼ πϱὸ πολλοῦ φωϱάσας ϰαὶ τούτου μελετῶν ἀποστῆσεσϑαι τοῦ ϑϱησϰεύματος, ὅμως ἕως τοῦδε ϰατειχόμην γοητευϑείς, ϰαί μοι σῷος ὄλεϑϱος ἣν ἄν, εἰ μὴ σύ μοι τῆς ἀληϑοῦς ἐξηγήσω τϱίβου, ϰαϑάπεϱ πυϱσὸς ἐπὶ ϑαλαττίας σϰοτομήνης ἀναφανείς.“
Ταῦτ᾽ εἰπών, ὁ Μάϱϰος δάϰϱυσι τὰς παϱειὰς ϰατῃόνιζεν- ἐγὼ δὲ αὐτὸν ἀναϰτώμενος, „πενϑεῖν μὲν ἐξέσται σοι ϰαὶ μετέπειτα“, ἔφην, «νῦν δὲ ὥϱα πανηγυϱίζειν σοι τὰ σωτήϱια ϰαὶ Θεῷ χάϱιν εἰδέναι, παϱ᾽ οὗ ϰαὶ ψυχὴ ϰαὶ νοῦς τῶν ὀλεϑϱίων ἀπαλλάττεται. Τοῦτο δέ μοι μαϑεῖν βουλομένῳ φϱάσον, εἰ τὰ δαιμόνια σώματα οἷά τέ ἐστι πλήττεσϑαι.“
„Πλήττεται“, ὁ Μάϱϰος εἶπεν, „ὡς ϰαὶ ὀδυνᾶσϑαι στεϱεᾶς ἐπενεχϑείσης ἐν χϱῷ.“
„Ἀλλὰ πῶς“, ἔφην, „πνεύματα ὄντα ϰαὶ μηδὲ στεϱεὰ μηδὲ σύνϑετα; Καίτοι τῶν συνϑέτων ἡ αἴσϑησις.“
Καὶ ὅς, „ϑαυμάζω“, εἶπεν, „ὅτι σοι τοῦτο ἢἤγνόηται, τὸ μηδ᾽ ἐπὶ τινοσοῦν μῶν ἢ νεῦϱον εἶναι τὸ αἰσϑανόμενον, ἀλλὰ τὸ ἐν τούτοις ἐνυπάϱχον πνεῦμα. Διὸ ϰἂν ϑλίβηται τὸ νεῦϱον, ϰἂν ψύχηται, ϰἂν ἄλλο τοῖον δή τι πάϑῃ, τοῦ πνεύματος εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα πεμπομένου τὴν ὀδύνην εἶναι· ϰαϑ' ἑαυτὸ γὰϱ οὐϰ ἂν ὀδυνῷτο τὸ σύνϑετον, ἀλλὰ τὸ μετέχον τοῦ πνεύματος, ἐπεὶ παϱαλελυμένον ἢ νεϰϱωϑὲν ἀνεπαίσϑητόν ἐστι, τοῦ πνεύματος γυμνωϑέν. Καὶ τὸ δαιμόνιον ἄϱα πνεῦμα δι᾽ ὅλου ὃν ϰατὰ φύσιν αἰσϑυητυϰὸν ϰατὰ πᾶν ἑαυτοῦ μέϱος ἀμέσως ὁϱᾷ τε ϰαὶ ἀϰούει ϰαὶ τὰ τῆς ἁφῆς ὑπομένει πάϑη ϰαὶ διαιϱούμενον ὀδυνᾶται ϰατὰ τῶν σωμάτων τὰ στεϱεά. Ταύτῃ τούτων διενεγϰόν, ὅτι τὰ μὲν ἄλλα τῶν διαιϱεϑέντων μόλις ἢ οὐδαμῶς οὐλοῦται, τὸ δὲ διαιϱούμενον εὐϑὺς συμφύεται αὖ, ϰαϑάπεϱ ἀέϱος ἢ ϰαὶ ὕδατος μόϱια μεταξύ τινος ἐμπίπτοντος στεϱεοῦ. Ἀλλ᾽ εἰ ϰαὶ ϑᾶττον ἢ λόγος τουτὶ τὸ πνεῦμα συμφύεται, πλὴν ἀνιᾶται ϰατ᾽ αὐτὸ τὸ γίνεσϑαι τὴν διαίϱεσιν. Διὸ ϰαὶ τὰς ἀϰμὰς τῶν σιδηϱίων δέδοιϰε ϰαὶ πεφόβηται, ϰαὶ τοῦτ᾽ εἰδότες οὗ τοὺς ἀποτϱοπιασμοὺς τεχναζόμενοι βελόνας ἢ μαχαίϱας, οἵ ἂν μὴ πϱοσπελάζειν ἐϑέλωσι, ϰατ᾽ ὀϱϑὰς ἱστῶσι ϰαὶ ἄλλ᾽ ἄττα ἐπιτηδεύουσιν ἢ ταῖς ἀντιπαϑείαις ἐϰτϱοπιάζοντες ἣ ταῖς συμπαϑείαις μειλίττοντες.“ Ταῦτα πεϱὶ τούτων, ὡς ἐμοὶ δοϰεῖ, πιϑανῶς ἐξηγεῖτο ὁ Μάϱϰος.
Τιμόϑεος Ἔφη δέ σοι ϰαὶ τοῦτο, ὦ Θϱᾷξ, εἰ πϱόγνωσιν τὸ δαιμόνιον ἔχει γένος;
Θϱᾷξ Ἰϱόγνωσιν μὲν εἶπεν ἔχειν, πλὴν οὔτε τὴν αἰτιώδη ϰαὶ νοεϱάν, οὔτε τὴν ἐπιστημονωςῆν, τὴν συμβολωεὴν δὲ μόνην — διὸ ϰαὶ διαπέπτειν ὡς τὰ πολλά —, μάλιστα δὲ τὴν πϱόγνωσιν ἰσχνὴν τοὺς πϱοσύλους ἔχειν, ἀμέλει ϰαὶ ἀληϑεύειν ὡς ἥϰιστα ἢ ὡς ἐλάχιστα.
Τιμόϑεος Ἔνεστιν οὖν ϰαὶ πεϱὲ τῆς ἐν αὐτοῖς πϱογνώσεως διελεῖν;
Θϱᾷξ Διεῖλον ἄν, εἴ μοι λέγειν ὁ ϰαιϱὸς παϱεῖχε" νῦν δέ, ἀλλ᾽ ὥϱα οἴϰαδε ἀπιέναι, ϰαὶ γὰϱ ὁϱᾷς ὡς ὁ πεϱὶ ἡμᾶς ἀὴϱ συννεφῆς ἐστι ϰαὶ ὠδίνων ὄμβϱον. Κίνδυνος οὖν ἐστιν ὑπαιϑϱίους ἐνϑαδὶ παϱαϰαϑημένους διαβϱαχήσεσϑϑαι.
Τιμόϑεος Οἷον, ὦ ἑταῖϱε, ποιεῖς, ἐϰϰϱεμῇ τὸν λόγον ἔτι ϰαταλιπών;
Θϱᾷξ Μὴ ἄχϑου, φίλτατε ἀνδϱῶν: Θεοῦ γὰϱ παϱέχοντος, εἴ ποτέ σοι συνενεχϑείημεν, ὃ ἂν τῷ λόγῳ ἐνδεῖ φιλοτίμως ὑπὲϱ τὰς Συϱαϰουσίων δεϰάτας ϰαταϑησόμεϑα.
Timothy Is it long, Thracian, since you visited Byzantium?
Thracian Yes, it is long, Timothy; two years perhaps, or more: I have been abroad.
Timothy But where, and why, and engaged in what business, were you away so long?
Thracian The questions you put would take too long to answer just now; I must devise Alcinius’ narrative if I am obliged to particularize every thing I was present at, and every thing I endured, while constrained to associate with impious characters — those Euchitæ, or, as many call them, Enthusiasts — have you not heard of them at all?
Timothy Why, I understand that there are amongst us individuals as godless as they are absurd, and that in the midst of the sacred quire (to speak in comedian style;) but as to their dogmas, their customs, their laws, their proceedings, their discourses, I have not yet been able to learn any thing about them; wherefore I beg of you to tell me most explicitly whatever you know, if you are disposed to oblige an intimate acquaintance, I will even add, a friend.
Thracian Even have it so, friend Timothy, though it be enough to give one a headache if he but attempt to describe the outlandish doctrines and doings of dæmonry; and though you cannot possibly derive any advantage from such description — for, if it be true what Simonides says, that the statement of facts is their delineation, and that therefore the statement of unprofitable facts must be profitable, and the statement of unprofitable facts quite the opposite — what possible benefit could you derive from my delineating their seductive statements?
Timothy Nay, but I shall be greatly benefited, Thracian; surely it is not unserviceable for physicians to be acquainted with drugs of a deadly nature, that so none may be endangered by their use: besides, some of the particulars, at all events, will not be unprofitable. We have our choice, therefore, either to carry off from your disquisition what is profitable, or to be on our guard of it if it have anything pernicious.
Thracian Agreed, my friend; you shall hear (as the poet says) truths certainly, but most unpleasant ones: but if my narrative advert to certain unseemly proceedings, I require of you, in common justice, not to be angry with me who relate them, but with those who do them. This execrable doctrine had its rise with Manes the Maniac, from him their [the Euchitæ’s] multitudinous origins have flowed down as from a fœtid fountain; for, according to the accursed Manes, there were two origins of all things: he, with senseless impiety, opposed a god, the author of evil, to God, the Creator of every good — a ruler of the wickedness of the Terrestials, to the bounteous Ruler of the Cœlestials. But the dæmoniacal Euchitæ have adopted yet a third origin; according to them, two sons, with their father, make the senior and the junior origin; to the father they have assigned the supra-mundane region solely, to the younger son the atmospheric region, and to the elder the government of things in the world — a theory which differs in nothing from the Greek mythology, according to which the universe is portioned out into three parts. These rottenminded men, having laid this rotten foundation, thus far are unanimous in their sentiments; but from this point are divided in their judgments into three parties: some yield worship to both sons, maintaining, that though they are at variance, yet that both are equally deserving of being worshipped, because they are spring from one parent, and will yet be reconciled. But others serve the younger son as being the governor of the superior region, which extends immediately over the earth; and yet they do not absolutely disdain the elder son, but are on their guard of him, as of one who has it in his power to do them injury; while the third party, who are further sunk in impiety, withdraw altogether from the worship of the celestial son, and enshrine in their hearts the earthly alone, even Satan, dignifying him with the most august names, as, the Firstbegotten, Estranged from the Father, the Creator of Plants and Animals, and the rest of the compound beings. Preferring to make suit to him who is the Destroyer and Murderer, gracious God! how many insults do they offer to the Celestial, whom they pronounce envious, an unnatural persecutor of his brother, (who administers judiciously the government of the world) and aver, that it is his being puffed up with envy occasions earthquakes and hail and famine, on which account they imprecate on him, as well other anathemas, as in particular that horrible one!
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Timothy By what train of reasoning have they brought themselves to believe and pronounce Satan a son of God, when not merely the Prophetic Writings, but the Oracles of Divine Truth everywhere speak but of one son, and he that reclined on our Lord’s bosom (as is recorded in the Holy Gospel), exclaims, concerning the divine λόγος, “the Glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father,” whence has such a tremendous error assailed them?
Thracian Whence, Timothy, but from the Prince of Lies, who deceives the understandings of his witless votaries by such vain-glorious fiction, vaunting that he will place his throne above the clouds, and averring that he will be equal to the Highest; for this very reason he has been consigned to outer darkness: and when he appears to them, he announces himself the first-begotten son of God and creator of all terrene things, who disposes of everything in the world, and by this means, following up the peculiar foible of each, cheats the fools, who ought to have considered him an empty braggart and the arch-prince of falsehood, and overwhelmed with ridicule his pompous pretensions, instead of believing everything he says, and suffering themselves to be led about like oxen by the nose. However, it will soon be in their power to convict him of being a liar, for if they insist on his making good his honied promises, he will turn out no better than the ass in lion’s skin which, when it attempted to roar like a lion, its braying betrayed. At present, however, they resemble the blind, and the deaf, and the insane, since they cannot perceive, from the consanguinity of universal nature, that there is but one Creator, nor hear that very consanguinity declaring the self-some truth, nor discover, by reasoning, that if there were two opposite creators, there would not be that one arrangement and oneness (ἕνωσις) which binds all things together. As the Prophet says, “the ox and the ass know their master and their master’s crib,” but these bid their Master farewell, and have elected to the place of God the most abject of all creatures. “Scorched though they be with the fire,” (as the Proverb says) they yet follow and precipitate themselves into that fire which has long been provided for him and his co-apostates.
Timothy But what profit do they derive from abjuring the Divine religion received from their fathers, and rushing on certain destruction?
Thracian As to profit, I do not know that they derive any, but I rather think not; for though the dæmons promise them gold, and possessions, and notoriety, yet you know they cannot give them to any: they do, however, present to the initiated phantasms and flashing appearances, which these men-detesters of God call visions of God. Such as wish to be spectators of them, gracious Heavens! how many shameful things, how many unutterable and detestable must they witness! For everything which we consider sanctioned by law, and a doctrine to be preached, and a duty to be practised, they madly disregard, nay, they even disregard the laws of nature; to commit their debaucheries to writing would only befit the impure pen of Archilochus, nay, I do think that were he present he would be loath to commemorate orgies so detestable and vile, as were never witnessed in Greece, no, nor in any barbarous land; for where or when did anyone ever hear that man, that august and sacred animal, ate excretions, whether moist or dry — a monstrosity which, I believe, not even wild beasts in a rabid state are capable of committing, and yet this is but the preliminary proceeding with these execrable wretches.
Timothy What for, Thracian?
Thracian Oh, this is one of their secrets — they know best who do it: however, on my frequently questioning on this point, all I could learn was, that the dæmons became friendly and affable on their partaking of the excretions. In this particular I was satisfied they spoke truth, though incapable of speaking it in other matters; since nothing can be so eminently gratifying to hostile spirits as to see man (who is an object of envy), man who has been honoured with the Divine image, fallen to such a state of degradation: this is putting the finishing stroke on their folly. Nor is this confined to the Antistites of the dogma (to whom they tack the appellation, Apostles), but extends to the Euchitæ and the Gnosti. But as to their mystical sacrifice, God preserve me! who could describe it? I blush to repeat the shameful things I witnessed, and yet I am bound to repeat them, for you, Timothy, have already prevailed on me; I will therefore skim over them lightly, omitting the more shameful proceedings, lest I should seem to be acting a tragedy, [rather than giving a plain statement of facts.] Vesperi enim luminibus accensis, quo tempore salutarem domini celebramus passionem, in domum præscriptam deductis, quas sacrilegi sacris suis initiaverunt, puellis ne lucem execrandi quod designant, flagitii testem habeant, cum puellis libidinose volutantur in quamcumque tandem, seu sororem, seu propriam filiam, seu matrem quilibet inciderit. Siquidem et hac in re dæmonibus rem gratam facere arbitrantur, si leges divinas transgressi fuerint, in quibas cautum est, ne nuptiæ cum sanguine cognato contrahantur. Having perfected this rite, they are dismissed; on the expiry of nine months, when the unnatural progeny of an unnatural seed is about being born, they meet again at the same place, and on the third day after parturition, tearing the wretched infants from their mothers, and scarifying their tender flesh with knives, they catch in basins the dripping blood, and casting the infants, still breathing, on the pile, consume them; afterwards, mingling their ashes with the blood in the basins, they make asort of horrible compound, with which, secretly defiling their food, liquid and -solid, like those who mix poison with mead, not only they themselves partake of these viands, but others also who are not privy to their secret proceedings.
Timothy What end do they propose to themselves by such revolting pollutions?
Thracian They are persuaded that by this means the divine symbols inscribed in our souls are thrust out and expunged, for so long as they continue there the dæmon tribe are afraid and keep aloof, as one might from the royal signet attached to a cabinet; in order, therefore, to enable the dæmons to reside in their souls they, without any apprehension, chase away the divine symbols, by their insults to heaven — and a profitable exchange they have made of it. But not satisfied with perpetrating this wickedness themselves, they lay a snare for others; the polluted viands tempting the pious also, who, without being aware of it, partake of the strange food, they like so many Tantali serving up their children for the entertainment.
Timothy Good Heavens, Thracian! this is what my grandfather by the father’s side predicted; for once being distressed, because some subverted as well the other privileges of the good as their acquisition of a liberal education, I asked him, will there ever be a restoration? he being then an old man) and very sagacious in farseeing coming events, gently stroking my head and fetching a heavy sigh, replied, “My son, my child, do you imagine that they will ever again restore literature, or anything excellent? The time is at hand when men will live worse than wild beasts, for now Antichrist is at hand, even at the doors, and evil precursors in the shape of monstrous doctrines and unlawful practices, no better than the orgies of Bacchus, must usher in his advent. And whatever things have been represented by the Greeks in their tragedies, as Saturn and Thyestes and Tantalus devouring their offspring, Œdipus debauching his mother, and Cinyras his daughters, all these fearful enormities will break in upon our state; but see my son, and be on your guard, for know, know for certain, that not only individuals from the illiterate and unpolished class, but many also of the learned, will be drawn away into the same practices.” These things, if I am to judge from the result, he spake prophetically; but I, when I recall to mind his words, which are as fresh in my memory now as when he uttered them, am surprised at what you tell me.
Thracian And well you may be surprised; for, many as are the absurd nations described by historians in the far North, and the parts about Lybia and Syrtes, yet I venture to say no one has ever heard of such impiety being practised by them, no, nor by the Celts, nor by any other nation near Britain, though destitute of laws and in a savage state.
Timothy It is afflicting to think, Thracian, that such horrible practices should take up their abode in our quarter of the world. But a perplexity of long standing respecting dæmons distresses me; among other things, I should like to know whether they are manifestly seen by the dæmoniacal wretches.
Thracian Not a doubt of it, my friend, for this they all strive, might and main; their assemblage and sacrifice, and rites, and every horrible practice of theirs, are held for this purpose, to bring about a manifestation.
Timothy How then can they, being incorporeal, be seen with the visual organs?
Thracian But, my good friend, they are not incorporeal; the dæmon tribe have a body, and are conversant with corporeal beings, which one may learn even from the holy fathers of our religion, if one only addict himself heartily to magical practices. We hear many too relating how the dæmons appeared to them in a bodily form; and the divine Basilius, who beheld invisible things (or at least not clear to ordinary eyes) maintains it, that not merely the dæmons, but even the pure angels have bodies, being a sort of thin, aërial, and pure spirits; and in proof of this he adduces the testimony of David, most celebrated of the prophets, saying, “He maketh his angels spirits, and his messengers a flame of fire.” And it must needs be even so, for when the ministering spirits are despatched to their respective employments (as the divine Paul says) they must needs have some body, in order to their moving, becoming stationary and apparent; for these effects could not be accomplished otherwise than through the medium of a body.
Timothy How comes it then, that in most passages of Scripture they are spoken of as incorporeal.
Thracian It is the practice both with Christian and profane authors, even the most ancient, to speak of the grosser description of bodies as corporeal; but those which are very thin, eluding both the sight and touch, not only we Christians, but even many profane authors think fit to call incorporeal.
Timothy But tell me, the body which angels have by natural constitution, is it the same with that which dæmons have?
Thracian What folly! there must be a vast difference, for the angelic, emitting a sort of extraneous rays, is oppressive and intolerable to the visual organs: but as to the dæmonic, whether it was once of this sort I cannot say, but so it would seem; (for Esaias disparagingly calls Lucifer “him that had fallen”) now, however it is an obscure and darksome sort of thing, saddened in aspect, divested of its kindred light; but the angelic nature is immaterial, and therefore is capable of penetrating and passing through all solids, being more impalpable than the sun’s rays, which, passing through transparent bodies, the opaque objects on this earth reflect, so as to render its stroke endurable, for there is something material in it; but nothing can interpose opposition to an angel, because they present opposition to nothing, not being homogeneous with any thing; on the other hand, the bodies of dæmons, though constituted indistinct by their tenuity; are yet in some measure material and palpable.
Timothy I am becoming quite a sage, Thracian, (as the proverb says), by these novel accessions of knowledge; for to me, indeed, this is a novel fact, that some dæmons are corporeal and palpable.
Thracian There is no novelty in our being ignorant or many things, so long as we are men, Timothy, as the saying is; ‘tis well, however, if, as ages advance, our good sense increases. Be assured of this, that in making these statements, I am not uttering lying raphsodies, like the Cretans: and Phœniceans, but am persuaded of their truth from the Saviour’s words, which affirm, that the dæmons shall be punished with fire, a punishment they would be incapable of if incorporeal. Since a being that is destitute of a body cannot suffer in the body, therefore they must needs undergo punishment by means of bodies, constituted capable of suffering. Much, however, I have suppressed which I heard from some who adventured themselves to intuition; for my own part, I have never seen a being of that nature — Heaven grant that I may never behold the fearful looks of dæmons! But I conversed with a monk in Mesopotamia, who really was an initiated inspector of dæmonic phantasms: these magical practices he afterwards abandoned as worthless and deceptive, and having made his recantation, attached himself to the true doctrine, which we profess, and assiduously applying himself, underwent a course of instruction at my hands; he accordingly told me many and extraordinary things about dæmons; and once, on my asking, if dæmons were capable of animal passion, “Not a doubt of it,” said he. Quemadmodum et sperma nonnulli eorum emittunt et vermes quosdam spermate procreant. At incredible est, inquam excrementi quicquam dæmonibus inesse, vasave spermatica et vitalia vasa quidem eis, inquit me, hujusmodi nulla insunt, superflui autem seu excrementi nescio quid emittunt hoc mihi asserenti credito. But, said I, if they derive nourishment, they must derive it as we do? Marcus [for that was his name], replied, some derive it by inhalation, as for instance a spirit resident in lungs and nerves, and some from moisture, but not as we do, with the mouth, but as sponges and testaceous fishes do, by drawing nourishment from the extraneous moisture lying around them, and they afterwards void a spermatic substance, but they do not all resemble each other in this particular, but only such descriptions of dæmons as are allied to matter, such as the Lucifugus, and Aqueous, and Subterranean. And are there many descriptions of dæmons, Marcus, I asked again? There are many, said he, and of every possible variety of figure and conformation, so that the air is full of them, both that above and that around us, the earth and the sea are full of them, and the lowest subterranean depths. Then, said I, if it would not be troublesome, would you particularize each? It would be troublesome, said he, to recall to mind matters I have dislodged from thence, yet I cannot refuse, when you command, and so saying he counted off many species of dæmons, adding their names, their forms, and their haunts.
Timothy What’s to hinder you then Thracian, enumerating them to us?
Thracian I was not very solicitous, my good sir, to retain either the substance or arrangement of that conversation, nor can I now recollect it. What possible benefit could I derive from an over-solicitude to retain their names, their, haunts, and in what particular they resemble, and in what differ from each other? therefore, I have allowed such insipid matter to escape my memory, yet, I retain a little out of a great deal, and whatever you are curious about, if you enquire of me you shall know it.
Timothy This in particular I wish to bow, how many orders of dæmons are there?
Thracian He said, there were in all six species of dæmons, I know not whether subdividing the entire genus by their habit!, or by the degree of their attachment to bodies — be that as it may, he laid that the sexade [of dæmons] were corporeal and mundane, because in that number all corporeal circumstances are comprised, and agreeably to it the mundane system was constituted; afterwards he observed, that this first number [the sexade] was represented by the scalene triangle, for that beings of the divine and celestial order were represented by the equilateral triangle, as being consistent with itself, and with difficulty inclinable to evil, whilst human beings were represented by the isoscelles triangle, as being in some measure liable to error in their choice, yet capable of reformation on repentance. On the other hand, that the dæmonic tribe were represented by the scalene triangle, as being at variance with itself, and not at all approaching to excellence. Whether he were really of this opinion or not, this is certain, he counted off six species of dæmons, and first he mentioned Leliurium, speaking in his barbarous vernacular tongue, a name which signifies Igneous. This order of dæmons haunts the air above us, for the entire genus has been expelled from the regions adjacent to the moon, as a profane thing with us would be expelled from a temple, but the second occupies the air contiguous to us, and is called by the proper name Aërial; the third is the Earthly, the fourth the Aqueous and Marine, the fifth the Subterranean, and the last the Lucifugus, which can scarcely be considered sentient beings. All these species of dæmons are haters of God, and enemies of man, and they say, that the Aqueous and Subterranean are worse than the merely bad, but that the Lucifugus are eminently malicious and mischievous, for these, said he, not merely impair men’s intellects, by phantasies and illusions, but destroy them with the same alacrity as we would the most savage wild beast. The Aqueous suffocate in the water all that approach them; the Subterranean and Lucifugus, if they can only insinuate themselves into the lungs of those they meet, seize and choke them, rendering them epileptic and insane; the Aërial and Earthly, with art and cunning stealthily approach and deceive men’s minds, impelling them to unlawful and unnatural lusts. But how, said I, or what doing, do they accomplish this? is it by lording it over us, and leading us about wherever they please, as if we were so many slaves? Not by lording it over us, says Marcus, but by leading us into reminiscences, for when we are in an imaginative spirit, approaching by virtue of their spiritual nature, they whisper descriptions of sensual delights and pleasures, not that they actually emit distinct sounds, but they insinuate a sort of murmur, that serves with them the place of words. But it is impossible, said I, they could utter words without sound? It is not impossible, said he, as you will perceive, if you only reflect, that when one is speaking to another at a distance, he must speak in a high key, but if he be near, he need barely murmur, and whisper into the ear of his auditor, and if one could approach the very essence of the soul, there would be no occasion for any sound whatever, but any word we pleased would reach its destination by a noiseless path; a faculty which they say is possessed by disembodied spirits, for they bold communication with each other in a noiseless manner, in the same way the dæmons hold communication with us, without our perceiving it, so that it is impossible to discover from what quarter an attack may be made upon us. You need have no doubt on this point, if you only consider what happens in the atmosphere; when the sun shines, he combines colors and forms, and transmits them to objects capable of receiving them, (as we may observe in mirrors); thus also the dæmons, assuming appearances and colors, and whatever forms they please, transport them into our animal spirit, and occasion us in consequence a vast deal of trouble, suggesting designs, reviving the recollection of pleasures, obtruding representations of sensual delights, both waking and sleeping; sometimes, too, rousing the baser passions by titillations, they excite to insane and unnatural amours, and especially when they find warm perspirations co-operating; for in this way, donning Pluto’s helmit, with craft and the most refined subtlety, they create a commotion in men’s minds. The other description of dæmons have not a particle of wit, and are incapable of cunning, yet are they dangerous and very terrible, injuring after the manner of the Charonean spirit, for (as they report) the Charonean spirit destroys every thing that comes in its way, whether boast man, or bird; in the same way these dæmons terrifically destroy everyone they fall in with, injuring them in body and mind. and subverting their natural habits; sometimes they destroy not merely men, but even irrational animals, in the fire, in the water, or by casting them over precipices.
Timothy But what can be their object in entering irrational animals? for this happened to the swine, at Gargasa (as the Sacred Writings attest). I am not surprised if, being hostile to men, they injure them; but what is the sense of their entering irrational animals?
Thracian Marcus said that it was not from any motive of hatred, nor from any hostile intention, that they pounced upon some beasts, but from a vehement desire for animal heat; for, as they inhabit the most profound depths, which are cold to the last degree, and destitute of moisture, they are excessively cold; being contracted and pained in consequence, they naturally long for a moist and vivifying heat to revel in, and spring into irrational animals, and plunge into baths and pits; on the other hand, the heat that proceeds from fire they avoid, because consuming and scorching, but gladly attach themselves to the moisture of animals, as being congenial to their nature, but especially to that of man, as being most congenial of all; and when infused into them they occasion no small uproar, the pores in which the animal spirit resides being clogged. and the spirit confined and displaced by the bulk of their bodies, which is the cause of their agitating men’s persons, and injuring their faculties, and obstructing their motions. When a subterranean dæmon assails one, he agitates and distorts the person possessed, and speaks through him, using the tongue of the sufferer as if it were his own member; but if a lucifugus dæmon clandestinely possess a person, it occasions a relaxation of his whole system, stops his utterance, and almost leaves the sufferer dead; for this last species is more allied to earth than the others, and is therefore excessively cold and dry, and anyone it can secretly possess, it blunts and obscures all the sufferer’s natural power; but, because it is irrational and totally devoid of intellect, being governed by irrational whim, it has no more dread of reproof than the most intractable wild beast, for which reason it is designated with great propriety dumb and deaf; nor can a sufferer be dispossessed but by divine power, procurable by prayer and fasting. “But, Marcus,” said I, “physicians would persuade us to be of another way of thinking, for they assert that such affections are not produced by dæmons, but are occasioned by an excess or deficiency of humours, or by a disordered state of the animal spirits, and accordingly they endeavour to cure them by medicine or dietetical regimen, but not by incantations or purifications.” Marcus replied — “It is not at all surprising if physicians make such an assertion, for they understand nothing but what is perceived by the senses, their whole attention being devoted to the body. Lethargies, Syncopes, cases of hypochondriasm, delirium, which they can remove by vomits, or evacuations, or unguents, it is quite correct to say that there are the effects of disordered humours; but enthusiasms, and mildness, and possessions, with which when one is seized he is incapable of making any use of his judgment, his tongue, his imagination, his senses, it is quite another thing moves and excites them, and speaks what the person seized is unconscious of uttering, though occasionally be prophesies something.” With what propriety [I ask] can these effects be called the disordered movements of matter?
Timothy How now, Thracian! do you yourself assent to what Marcus says?
Thracian Most undoubtedly, Timothy; for how could I do otherwise, when I recollect what the holy Gospels relate concerning persons possessed with dæmons, and what befell the man of Corinth at Paul’s command, and how many wonderful things are related of them by the Fathers; and moreover saw with my own eyes, and heard with my own ears, their doings at Elason; for a man in that place was in the habit of delivering oracles after the manner of the priests of Phœbus, and, amongst other things, predicted not a few concerning myself. Having collected the multitude of the initiated around him, he said — “I apprise the present company of the fact that an individual will be sent against us, by whom the mysteries of our worship will be persecuted, and the mysteries of our service abolished; myself and many others shall be apprehended by that person; but, though he be very anxious to carry me off a prisoner to Byzantium, he shall not do it — not though he make many and vigorous efforts to accomplish it.” Such predictions he uttered, though I had never gone as far from the city as to the neighbouring villages. He described, too, my aspect, deportment, and occupation, and many who used to pass to and fro told me the facts. At length, when I did apprehend him, I asked him how he came to be gifted with the prophetic art? He, though he did not wish to divulge the secret, yet, labouring under a laconic necessity, confessed the truth, for he said that he had come to the knowledge of dæmoniacal practices through a certain vagabond African, who, bringing him by night to a mountain, causing him to partake of a certain herb, spitting into his mouth, and anointing his eyes with a certain unguent, enabled him to see a host of dæmons, from among which he perceived a sort of raven fly towards him, and down his throat into his stomach. From that time up to the present moment he could predict, but only respecting such things, and at such times, as the dæmon who possessed him wished; but on Passion week and the Resurrection day, so much venerated by Christians, not though be himself should greatly desire it, is the dæmon who possessed him disposed to suggest anything. These things he told me, and, when one of my followers struck him on the cheek, “you,” said he, “for this one blow shall receive many; and you,” said he, turning to me, “shall, suffer great calamities in your person, for the dæmons are fearfully incensed against you for subverting their service, and will involve you in harassing dangers, such as you cannot by any possibility escape, unless some power superior to that of dæmons extricate you. These things the polluted wretch predicted, as if uttering oracles from the Delphic Tripod; for they all happened, and I have been almost undone by the numerous dangers which beset me; from which my Saviour alone wonderfully rescued me; but who that has seen the oracle in which dæmons play upon wind instruments, will say that madness in all its forms are but the vitiated movements of matter?
Timothy I am not at all surprised, Thracian, that physicians are of this way of thinking, for how many cannot at all understand this sort of thing? For my part, I was first of their opinion, until I saw what was absolutely portentous and monstrous in its character, which, as it is quite apropos to the present topic, I shall relate. An old man like me, and who has, besides, assumed the monastic habit, is incapable of telling a falsehood. I had an elder brother maried to a woman, who was on the whole of a good disposition, but exceedingly perverse; she was, too, afflicted with a variety of diseases. She, in her confinement, was very ill, and raved extravagantly, and, tearing her bedgown, muttered a sort of barbarous tongue, in a low murmuring tone; nor could the bystanders comprehend what she said, but were in a state of perplexity, not knowing what to do in so desperate a case. Some women, however (for the sex is very quick in discovering expedients, and particularly clever in meeting exigencies), fetched a very old bald-headed man, with his skin wrinkled and sun-burnt to a very dark hue, who, standing with his sword drawn beside the bed, affected to be angry with the invalid, and upbraided her much in his own tongue; (I mention that, because he was an Armenian). The woman replied to him in the same tongue; first she was very bold, and, leaning on the bed, rated him with great spirit; but when the foreigner was more liberal with his exorcisms, and, as if in a passion, threatened to strike her, upon this the poor creature crouched and shook all over, and, speaking in a timid tone, fell fast asleep. We were amazed, not because she was transported with frenzy, for that with her was an ordinary occurrence, but because she spoke in the Armenian tongue, though she had never up to that hour so much as seen an Armenian, and understood nothing but her connubial and domestic duties. On her recovery I asked what she had undergone, and if she could recall to mind anything that had occurred; she said she saw a sort of darksome spectre, resembling a woman, with the hair dishevelled, springing upon her; that in her terror she had fallen on the bed, and from that time had no recollection of what has occurred. She spoke thus on her recovery. Ever since that event a sort of bond of ambiguity keeps me perplexed, as to how the dæmon which harassed this woman could seem feminine, for we may well question whether the distinction of sex prevails amongst the dæmons as amongst the creatures of earth; and, in the next place, how could it employ the Armenian tongue? for we can hardly conceive that some dæmons speak in the Greek, some in the Chaldee, and others in the Persic or Syriac; and also why it should crouch at the. charmer’s threats, and fear a naked sword; for how can a dæmon, which can neither be struck nor slain, suffer from a sword? These doubts perplex me exceedingly; upon these points I require persuasion, which I think you the most competent person to afford, as you are thoroughly acquainted with the sentiments of the ancients, and have acquired a great deal of historical knowledge.
Thracian I should wish, Timothy, to render reasons for the matters in question, but I am afraid we may seem a pair of triflers, you in searching for what no one has yet discovered, I in attempting to explain what I ought rather to pass over in silence, and especially as I know that things of this kind are made matters of misrepresentation by many; but since, according to [King] Antigonus, one ought to oblige his friend, not merely in what is very easily performed, but sometimes also where there is something of difficulty, I will even attempt to loose this bond of ambiguity [you complain of], reconsidering the matter which gave occasion to Marcus’ discourses. He said that no species of dæmon was naturally either male or female, but that their animal passions were the same with those of the creatures with which they were united; for that the simple dæmonic bodies, which are very ductile and flexible, are accommodative to the nature of every form; for as one may observe the clouds exhibiting the appearance one while of men, at another of bears, at another of serpents, or some other animal, thus also it is with the bodies of dæmons; but when the clouds are disturbed by external blasts, diversified appearances are presented; thus also it is with the dæmons, whose persons are transformed according to their pleasure into whatever appearance they please, and are one moment contracted into a less bulk, the next stretched out into a greater length. The same thing we see exemplified in lubricous animals in the bowels of the earth, owing to the softness and pliability of their nature, which are not merely altered in respect of size, but also in respect of appearance; and that in a variety of ways; the body of dæmons likewise is accommodative in both particulars: not only is it peculiarly yielding, and takes the impression of objects, but, because it is aerial, it is susceptible of all kinds of hues, as is the atmosphere; such is the body of dæmons, owing to the imaginative energy inherent in it, and which extends to it the appearance of colours; for, as when we are panic-struck, we first are pale, and afterwards blush, according as the mind is variously affected, owing to the soul extending such affections to the body, we may well suppose it is just the same way with the dæmons, for they from within can send out to their bodies the semblance of colours; for which reason each, when metamorphosed into that appearance which is agreeable, extending over the surface of his body the appearance of color, sometimes appears as a man, sometimes is metamorphosed as a woman, and, changing those forms, it retains neither constantly, for its appearance is not substantial, but resembles what occurs in the atmosphere, or water, in which you no sooner infuse a color, or delineate a form, than straitway it dissolves and is dispelled. We may perceive that the dæmons are liable to similar affections, for in them color, and figure, and all appearance whatever is evanescent. In these things Marcus, as I conjecture, said what was probable; and from this time forward let not the question harass you, whether the distinction of sex exists in dæmons on account of the genital member appearing in them, for these, whether male or female, are not constant nor habitual; therefore consider that the dæmon which so much harassed the woman in confinement seemed like a woman, not because it was really and habitually feminine; but because, it presented the appearance of a woman.
Timothy But how comes it Thracian, that it does not assume now one form, and now another, like the other dæmons, but is always seen in this form, for I have heard from many, that dæmons of the female form only are seen by women in confinement?
Thracian For this too, Marcus assigned a not improbable reason, he said that all dæmons have not the same. power and inclination that in this particular there is a great diversity amongst them, for some are irrational, as amongst mortal compound animals, now as amongst them, man, being endowed with intellectual and rational powers is gifted with a more discursive imagination, one which extends to almost all sensible objects, both in heaven, and around, and on this earth. Horses, oxen, and animals of that sort, with a more confined sort of imagination, which extends but to some things, which exercise the imaginative faculty [as for instance,] their companions at pasture, their stall, or their owners; and gnats, with flies and worms, have this faculty exceedingly restricted, not knowing any of them the hole they leave, where they proceed, or whither they ought to go, but exercising the imagination for the single purpose of aliment, in the same manner also the species of dæmons are greatly diversified; for amongst them, some as the Empyreal and Aërial are possessed of a very discursive imagination, one that extends to every imaginable object; very different from them are the Subterranean and Lucifugi; they do not assume a variety of forms, for they are incapable of numerous spectral appearances, not being possessed of pliability and versatility of person; the Aqueous and Terrene, occupying an intermediate position with respect to those already described, are incapable of changing their forms, but in whatever forms they delight, in these they constantly continue. But you should not be at all perplexed, if the dæmon that harassed the woman in confinement appeared feminine, for being a lascivious dæmon, and delighting in impure moistures, changing its form, it naturally assumed that which is best adapted for a life of pleasure, but with respect to the dæmon speaking in the Armenian tongue; that was a point Marcus did not clear up, it will be manifest, however, from the following considerations: — It is impossible to ascertain the peculiar tongue of each particular dæmon, whether [for instance,] such a dæmon speak in the Hebrew, or Greek, or Syriac, or other barbarous tongue; indeed, [I may ask,] what absolute need have they of a voice, who usually hold intercourse without one? [as I already observed,] but as in the case of the angels of the nations, different angels being appointed over different nations, different angels must associate with each other, they use each the tongue of their respective nation’s; we may reasonably conclude, that it is the same way with the dæmons, for which reason some of them with the Greeks delivered oracles in Heroics, but others with the Chaldees were evoked in Chaldee, whilst among the Ægyptians they were induced to approach by means of Ægyptian incantations, in the same manner too, the dæmons amongst the Armenians, if they happen to go elsewhere, prefer to use their tongue [the Armenians] as if it were the vulgar tongue.
Timothy Be it so Thracian; but what suffering are they capable of, that they fear threats and a sword? what are they to be supposed capable of suffering from such, that they crouch with fear, and keep aloof?
Thracian You are not the only person Timothy, who has been perplexed on these points; before I heard your doubts on them I expressed mine to Marcus, and he to remove them observed, the various species of dæmons are bold, and cowardly in the extreme, but especially such as are allied to matter. The Aërial indeed possessing the largest share of intelligence, if one rebuke them, can distinguish the person rebuking, and no one harassed by them can be liberated, unless such a holy character as addicts himself to the worship of God, and relying on the Divine power, calls to his aid the terrible name of the Divine λόγος. Those that are allied to matter, unquestionably fearing a dismissal to abysses and subterranean places, and the angels who are usually despatched against them, when one threatens them with these, [the angels,] and their being conveyed away to such places, and calls over them, the designation of the angels appointed to this office, are afraid, and thrown into great perturbation; so that from being deranged, they cannot discern who it is that threatens.
Timothy But what advantage, did he say, resulted from the service of the Aërial dæmons?
Thracian He did not say, my good friend, that any good resulted from those proceedings; indeed the things themselves proclaim in a barefaced manner that they are made up of vanity, imposture, and a groundless imagination, however fiery meteors, such as are usually called falling stars, descend from them on their worshippers, which the madmen have the hardihood to call visions of God, though they have no truth, nor certainty, nor stability about them, (for what of a luminous character, could belong to the darkened dæmons,) and though they are but ridiculous tricks of theirs, such things as; are effected by optical illusions, or by means called miraculous? but really by imposing on the spectators; these things I wretched man discovered long since, and was meditating to abandon this religion, yet up to the present moment, I was kept fascinated, and my perdition had been inevitable, had not you extricated me [from my perilous situation] by the path of truth, shining forth like a Pharos, placed to dispel the darkness of the sea, Marcus having spoke thus shed a flood of tears, and I consoling, him said, you can chuse a fitter time for weeping, now it is seasonable to magnify your salvation, and return thanks to God, by whom both your body and soul are emancipated from perdition.
Timothy Tell me this, for I long to know it, whether the bodies of dæmons are of such a nature, as to be capable of being struck?
Thracian Marcus said, that they could be struck, so as to be pained by a powerful blow afflicted on the person. But how, said l, can that be, as they are spirit, and not solid nor compound, for the faculty of sensation belongs to compound bodies? I am amazed, said he, you should be ignorant of the fact, that it is not the bone or nerve of any is endowed with the faculty of sensation, but the spirit inherent in them, therefore, whether the nerve be pained or refreshed, or suffer any other affection, the pain proceeds from the immission of spirit into spirit, for a compound body is not capable of being pained by virtue of itself, but by virtue of its union with spirit, for when dissected or dead, it is incapable of suffering, because deprived of the spirit; also a dæmon being altogether spirit, and of a sensitive constitution in every part of it, sees and hears, and is capable of the sense of touch, without the intervention of organs of sense, it is pained after the manner of solid bodies, with this difference, however, that whereas when they are divided, they are with difficulty, or never made whole, this when divided, straightway unites, like the particles of air or water, when some solid body displaces them; but though the spirit unites swifter than speech, yet is it pained in the very moment of separation; this is the reason why it fears and dreads the points of iron instruments — and exorcists, well aware of their aversion, when they do not wish the dæmons to approach a specific place, set darts and swords erect, and provide certain other things, either diverting them from that spot by their antipathies, or alluring them to another by their attachments. In these particulars, Marcus’ explanation respecting the dæmons, in my judgment, seemed probable.
Timothy But did he tell you this Thracian? did he tell you whether the dæmons were gifted with foreknowledge?
Thracian Yes, but not a causal or intelligent, nor experimental foreknowledge, but merely conjectural, for which reason it most generally fails, so that they scarcely ever utter a particle of truth.
Timothy Can’t you describe to me, the nature of that foreknowledge, which is inherent in them?
Thracian I would describe it, if time permitted me, but now ‘tis time to return home, for as you see, the air around is hazy, and charged with rain, and if we sit here in the open air, we will be wet through-and-through.
Timothy Friend, consider what you do, leaving your discourse unfinished.
Thracian Don’t be uneasy, my best friend, for please God, the first opportunity you and I meet again, I will make good whatever is wanting, and, that in the Syracusan style. [Literally beyond the decimes of the Syracusans.]
Michæl Psellus, who flourished in the eleventh century, the author of this little treatise on the operation of Dæmons, was an eminent philologist, philosopher, and scholar, and filled the office of tutor to the young Prince Michiel, son of Constantine Ducas, with great credit to himself, as appears from the eulogium passed on him by Anna Comnena, daughter of the emperor Alexis (Alexiados, lib.v.) Beside other works, he wrote an exposition of Aristotle’s Philosophy, and Commentaries on the Book of Psalms and Solomon’s Song. Mosheim, the ecclesiastical historian, pays the following tribute to his worth: “But the greatest ornament of the Republic of Letters in the eleventh century was Michael Psellus, a man illustrious in every respect, and deeply versed in all the various kinds of erudition that were known in his age. This great man recommended warmly to his countrymen the study of philosophy, and particularly the system of Aristotle, which he embellished and illustrated in several learned and ingenious productions.”
”The work (now for the first time published in an English dress) was written A. D. about 1050, and was distinguished by the learned Barthius with the honorable title, “The Little Golden Book”. It is interesting as a literary curiosity, being now exceedingly scarce, as well as by its subject, on which mankind have generally shown themselves very inquisitive. It is further interesting from its detailing most minutely the extraordinary secret proceedings of the Euchitæ, otherwise called Massalians (which, it must be admitted, is a desideratum), and it seems to determine the true meaning of the expression “doctrines of dæmons” (1st Tim. iv, 1).
We may further remark respecting the work, it may be considered a fair specimen of the manner in which heathen philosophy was blended with Christian theology in the author’s day, and of the plausible reasonings with which the most absurd theories were supported; and it goes far to show that certain terms, which by ecclesiastical usage have obtained a harsh signification, had not acquired such harsh signification so early as the period for which Psellus’ dialogue is laid. It relates also an instance of dæmoniacal possession which cannot be accounted for on the supposition that such possessions were imaginary.
The propriety of apprising the mere English reader of the distinction between a dæmon and the devil suggests itself here.  The Pagan world, for the most part, knew nothing whatever of the devil, though well acquainted with dæmons, and addicted to their worship; and nothing can be more clearly evinced from Scripture than the fact that there is but one devil, whereas the dæmons are numerous; the distinction between them, though invariably observed in Scripture, has not been carried out in either our authorized translation, the German of Luther, or the Geneva French. It has been rigidly preserved, however, by the Syriac version, all the Latin translations, ancient and modern, and Diodatti’s Italian version. We cannot do better than cite what Dr. Campbell has so lucidly written on this subject; after remarking that there is scarcely any perceptible difference between δαίμων and δαιμόνιον, this acute critic observes (Diss. vi. p. 1, § 8): “∆αιμόνιον, dæmon, occurs frequently in the Gospels, and always in reference to possessions, real or supposed; but the word διάβολος, devil, is never so applied. The use of the term δαιμόνιον, dæmon, is as constantly indefinite as the term διάβολος, devil, is definite: not but that it is sometimes attended by the article, but that is only when the ordinary rules of composition require that the article be used of a term that is strictly indefinite. Thus when a possession is first named, it is called simply δαιμόνιον, or dæmon, or πνεῦμα άχάϑαρτόν,an unclean spirit; never to δαιμόνιον, or τό πνεῦμα άχάϑαρτόν; but when in the progress of the story mention is again made of the same dæmon, he is styled τό δαιμόνιον, the dæmon, namely, that already spoken of; and in English, as well as Greek, this is the usage in regard to all indefinites. Further, the plural δαιμόνια occurs frequently, applied to the same order of beings with the singular; but what sets the difference of signification in the clearest light is that though both words, διάβολος and δαιμόνιον, occur often in the Septuagint [Ἡ μετάφρασις τῶν Ἑβδομήϰοντα, rfm], they are invariably used for translating different Hebrew words; διάβολος is always in Hebrew רע, tsar, enemy, or שטן; Satan, adversary, words never translated δαιμόνιον. This word, on the contrary, is made to express some Hebrew term signifying idol, Pagan deity, apparition, or what some render satyr. What the precise idea of the dæmons to whom possessions were ascribed then was, it would, perhaps, be impossible for us with any certainty to affirm; but as it is evident that the two words διάβολος and δαιμόνιον are not once confounded, though the first occurs in the New Testament upwards of thirty times, and the second about sixty, they can by no just rule of interpretation be rendered by the same term; possessions are never attributed to the being termed ο διάβολος, nor are his authority and dominion ever ascribed to dæmons. Nay, when the discriminating appellations of the devil are occasionally mentioned, δαιμόνιον is never used as one.
It may be proper to subjoin here the most striking instances of the term being mistranslated in the authorized version. Acts xvii, 18: “Others said he seemeth to be a setter forth, of strange gods,” should be strange dæmons. 1st Corinth. x, 20, 21: “The things which the Gentiles sacrifice they sacrifice to devils, and not to God, and I would not that ye should have fellowship with devils; ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils; ye cannot be partakers of the Lord’s table and the table of devils.” Here in every instance the word rendered devils should be rendered dæmons. Rev. ix, 20: “The rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues, yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils;” read dæmons. 1st Tim. iv, 1: “Giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrine of devils,” should be dæmons. James ii, 19: “Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well; the devils also believe and tremble;” substitute dæmons.
With respect to the instance of dæmoniacal possession recorded in Psellus’ work, and which is irreconcileable with the supposition that such possessions were imaginary, although, indeed, it may be objected that that particular case is not duly authenticated, yet we can hardly conceive it possible for any one who implicitly believes the infallible truth of Scripture, and reads it with ordinary attention, to call in question the reality of dæmoniacal possessions, at least in the apostolic age. Nothing can be more pertinent than Dr. Campbell’s remarks on this subject (Diss. vi, p. 1, §10): “A late learned and ingenious author (Dr. Farmer),” observes Dr. Campbell, “has written an elaborate dissertation to evince that there was no real possession in the demoniacs mentioned in the Gospel, but that the style there employed was adopted merely in conformity to popular prejudice, and used of a natural disease. Concerning this doctrine, I shall only say, in passing, that if there had been no more to argue from sacred writ in favour of the common opinion than the name δαιμονιζόμενος, or even the phrases δαιμόνιον ἔχειν, ἐϰβάλλειν, &c, I should have thought his explanation at least not improbable; but, when I find mention made of the number of dæmons in particular possessions, their action so expressly distinguished from that of the man possessed, conversations held by the former in regard to the disposal of them after their expulsion, and accounts given how they were actually disposed of — when I find desires and passions ascribed peculiarly to them, and similitudes taken from the conduct which they usually observe, it is impossible for me to deny their existence, without admitting that the sacred historians were either deceived themselves in regard to them, or intended to deceive their readers. Nay, if they were faithful historians, this reflection, I am afraid, will strike still deeper.”
Without consenting to all that Psellus advances on the origin, nature, modes of action, and occasional manifestation of dæmons, yet, believing implicitly the sacred Scriptures, we can have no more doubt of the existence of such beings than we have of our own. Dr. Campbell also observes, (Diss. vi, p. 1, § 11): “Though we cannot discover with certainty, from all that is said in the Gospel concerning possessions, whether the dæmons were conceived to be the ghosts of wicked men deceased, or lapsed angels, or (as was the opinion of some early Christian writers, Iust. M. Apol. 1.) the mongrel breed of certain angels (whom they understood by the sons of God, mentioned in Genesis, ch. vi,2) and of the daughters of men, it is plain they were conceived to be malignant spirits. They are exhibited as the causes of the most direful calamities to the unhappy person whom they possess — dumbness, deafness, madness, palsy, and the like. The descriptive titles given them always denote some ill quality or other; most frequently they are called πνεύματα ἀϰάϑαρτα, unclean spirits; sometimes πνεύματα πονηρά, malign spirits; they are represented as conscious that they are doomed to misery and torments, though their punishment be for a while suspended. ‘Art thou come hither, βασανίσαι ἡμᾶς, to torment us before the time?’ Matt. viii, 29.”
Calmet seems to be of opinion that the dæmons are identical with the apostate angels: we cannot but believe that such as were connected with dæmoniacal possession were the same with the apostate angels, the more especially as we find not the remotest allusion to their origin as a distinct class, and as both they and the apostate angels are represented as destined to future torment. The possessed with dæmons at Gadara cry out, on our Lord’s approach, “Art thou come to torment us before the time” (Matt. viii, 29) — whilst our Lord says, delivering the future judgment, “Depart ye cursed into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:” from which passages it would appear that neither Satan nor the dæmons are yet enduring the extreme punishment prepared for them; indeed, the scriptural opinion appears to be that, as the devil walketh about like a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour, going to and fro in the earth, walking up and down in it, so his emissaries, the apostate angels, the dæmons, roam through every part of it, inflicting diseases, tempting to sin, and blasting physical as well as moral good. If it be said that such a supposition is irreconcilable with the power and beneficence of the Divine Being, will those who make such objection venture to deny the existence of moral and physical evil? and if that be reconcilable with the power and beneficence of the Supreme, why may not the doctrine just laid down? Will it be said that such a supposition is irreconcilable with the immutability and permanency of the Divine laws? Will those who make such objection assert, that the superficial knowledge they may have acquired of nature’s laws warrants them in saying that they understand the Divine laws? — who can tell all the causes that lead to any one, even the most insignificant, event? — and who can tell but that the laws of nature, without our perceiving it, are controlled by dæmonic agency? We only see a few of the links — we cannot see all the links of the chain that lead to anyone result.
It may be proper to examine here the Heathen notion of the word dæmon, by which means (mutatis mutandis) we will be better able to understand its scriptural application. Its etymology conveys the idea either of an acute intelligence or of an appointed agent; but as these may exist separately, in distinct beings, or combined in the same being, it is obvious mere etymology cannot guide us to a safe conclusion in our enquiry. Homer applies the epithet dæmons, in more than one instance, to the dii majorum gentium (Iliad, v. 222); but whether he regarded the dii majorum gentium as an inferior order of beings, subordinate to a superior intelligence, or heroes advanced to this eminence, or merely applied this term as suitable, in its primary sense of an acute intelligence, to beings of the very first order, is somewhat doubtful. The scholiast seems to favour the view last mentioned (Hom. Diad. Cantab. 1711, vers. 222). We cannot but be persuaded that Homer considered all the gods and goddesses of human origin, and occasionally gave glimpses of his opinion on this point, though he dared not openly to avow his sentiments. One very striking instance of this furtive way of insinuating his private opinions we have in the 20th book of the Iliad, 74th line, where, speaking of a river in the Troade, he says, ὃν Ξάνϑον ϰαλέουσι ϑεοί, ἄνδρες δὲ Σϰάμανδρον, “which the Gods call Xanthus, but men Scamander;” Xanthus being the name by which the ancients designated the river, he almost says that ancients and gods are convertible terms. It may be objected, “can Jupiter himself be included under this idea — Jupiter, to whom almighty power and supreme dominion are attributed, and who is styled by the poets “the father of gods and men, the greatest and best of being?” De La Motte’s reply to Madame Dacier is here very apposite — “What! could Homer seriously believe Jupiter to be the creator of gods and men? Could he think him the father of his own father Saturn, whom he drove out of heaven, or of Juno, his sister and his wife, of Neptune and Pluto, his brothers, or of the nymphs who had charge of him in his childhood, or of the giants who made war upon him, and would have dethroned him, if they had been then arrived at the age of manhood? How well his actions justify the Latin epithets, optimus, maximus, most gracious, most mighty, so often given him, all the world knows.” (De la Critique, seconde partie, Des Dieux.) On the whole, we are rather inclined to think that Homer considered all gods (the dii majorum gentium not excepted) as dæmons of human original. Hesiod follows next in order of time; he seems decidedly of opinion that all gods were dæmons, and originally human; he intimates that the dæmons are the men of the golden age, who lived under Saturn, and avers that they are the protectors of mankind, φύλαϰες ϑνητῶν ἀνϑρώπων. (Vide Scholiast on Homer’s Iliad, A. 222.)
Socrates’ sentiments on this subject, as also those of Plato and his immediate disciples, may be gathered from the following extract from Plato’s Cratylus [A]: “Soc. What shall we consider next? Hermogenes. Dæmons, to be sure, and heroes, and men. Soc. Let it be dæmons, then, and with what propriety they are so named. Consider, Hermogenes, if I say ought worthy of your attention as to what might have been the sense of the word dæmon. Hermog. Proceed. Soc. Are you aware that Hesiod says certain are dæmons? Hermog. I don’t remember it. Soc. Nor that he says the first generation of men were golden? Herm. I know that, at all events. Soc. Well, then, he speaks thus respecting it:
Herm. What, then, pray? Soc. I think he calls a generation the golden [generation], not as though produced from gold, but because excellent and glorious; and I conjecture it is for analogous reasons he says we are an iron generation. Herm. You say the truth. Soc. You think, then, he would say, if anyone of the present age were excellent, he belonged to the golden age? Herm. It is but the natural inference. Soc. Who are excellent but the wise? Herm. The wise, none else. Soc. This, therefore, he specially intimates respecting Intelligences, that he designated them Intelligences because wise and intelligent, and in our ancient speech the word occurs. Accordingly not only Hesiod, but many other poets also, calls them appropriately thus. How many, too, are in the habit of saying, when, a good man dies, that be obtains a glorious lot, and dignity, and becomes an intelligence, designating him thus owing to his wisdom? In the same manner I aver that the intelligent man is every good man, and that the same, whether living or dead, is intellectual, and is correctly called all intelligence.” — Plutarch, who flourished in the second century, gives the following as his doctrine of dæmons: “According to a divine nature and justice, the souls of virtuous men are advanced to the rank of dæmons; if they are properly purified, they are exalted into gods, not by any political institution, but according to right reason.” The same author says in another place (de Isis et Osiris, p. 361), that Isis and Osiris were for their virtue changed into gods, as were Hercules and Bacchus afterwards, receiving the united honors both of gods and dæmons.
From these data we conclude that the word dæmon, assignifying in its abstract sense an intelligence, was occasionally applied from the earliest times to deities of the very first order, but afterwards came to be appropriated to deified men; and that the heathen (philosophers excepted) believed in no being identical with or bearing the slightest resemblance to our God. In the language of one who cannot be suspected of any partiality to Christianity, they were “a kind of superstitious atheists, who acknowledged no being that corresponds with our idea of a deity." (Nat. Hist. of Rel, sect.iv.)
The heathen did not pretend to be acquainted with all the existing dæmons or intelligences. So sensible were the Greeks of their ignorance on this head, that they actually had, in Paul’s day, an altar at Athens with the inscription, “To an unknown God.” They thought by this contrivance toobviate any bad results that might accrue from their ignorance, and secure to every dæmon or intelligence a due share of honor. Paul accordingly, with ingenious artifice, takes advantage of this circumstance to introduce Jesus to their notice as a dæmon  or intelligence they were unconsciously worshipping. He thus apologizes on Mar’s Hill, (Acts xvii. 22): “Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in every thing you somewhat surpass in the worship of dæmons (ϰατὰ πάντα ὡς δεισιδαιμονεστέρους ); for as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, “to an unknown God;” whom therefore you ignorantly worship, Him declare I unto you: ”In this apology the word dæmon does not convey the idea of either an impure or malignant being, but simply of an intelligence.
It can hardly be questioned but that the heathen, when worshipping deified men as dæmons, were really worshipping beings who had no existence but in their own imaginations; and in so doing, though they could not be said to worship any particular dæmon, yet might they with propriety be called worshippers of dæmons, beings which, whether real or imaginary, were confessedly inferior to the Supreme. In this seems to lie the force of the Apostle’s remark (1st Cor.x, 19, 20,) “What say I, then? that the idol is anything, or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols anything? but I say that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice they sacrifice to dæmons, and not to God, and I would not that you should have fellowship with dæmons. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of dæmons!” As if the Apostle had said, “do I mean to assert that an idol is intrinsically anything? by no means; the veriest tyro in the school of Christ knows that an idol is nothing, for eyes have they, and see not, &c.; but while I grant this, I still maintain that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice they sacrifice to dæmons, of which the idols are symbolical representations.” Possibly the particular dæmon intended by the idol might have no existence, but idols may be considered with propriety to represent the class, viz, beings intermediate between God and man, inferior to the former, but superior to the latter; “for to all who come under this description, real or imaginary, good or bad, the name dæmons (intelligences) is promiscuously applied. The reality of such intermediate order of beings revelation everywhere supposes, and rational theism does not contradict. Now it is to the kind expressed in the definition now given that the pagan deities are represented as corresponding, and not individually to particular dæmons, actually existing. To say, therefore, that the Gentiles sacrifice to dæmons is no more than to say that they sacrifice to beings which, whether real or imaginary, we perceive, from their own account of them, to be below the Supreme." (Campb, Diss. vi, p. 1, § 15.)
It may be asked, of what practical utility is a work of this nature — of what practical importance can it be whether we believe or disbelieve the existence of dæmons? We humbly conceive it is not optional with us to treat any portion of divine truth as unimportant, because we cannot see its practical bearing upon the conduct. If it can be unequivocally shown from the Word of God that dæmons exist, the belief of the fact belongs to us, the utility of it to Him that permits it. At the same time, we cannot forbear observing that, if it be a work of utility to throw light, in the least degree, on any portion of the Word of God, and to rescue a term or a passage from a perverted use, then we flatter ourselves such ends may be in some measure effected by the publication of Psellus’ work; but if there were no other reason for its publication than a desire to communicate the arguments with which, in those comparatively early times, men of a philosophic turn of mind fortified themselves in the belief of dæmoniacal possessions (as well in the Apostolic age as in their own time), we conceive none could justly condemn such a laudable motive. Surely a supercilious contempt for the Anakim of ancient literature, which would censure them unheard, or consign their writings to oblivion; is no mark of either liberality or wisdom in the present age.