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Peter Friedrich Arpe: De prodigiosis naturae et artis operibus talismanes et amuleta dictisAbbildungDeskriptionAnmerkungRoy Kotansky: AmuletsPlutarchVarroLynn Thorndike

Peter Friedrich Arpe: De prodigiosis naturae et artis operibus talismanes et amuleta dictis

„Arpe is an interesting transition figure“

Peter Friedrich Arpe:

DE PRODIGIOSIS | NATURÆ ET ARTIS | OPERIBUS | TALISMANES | ET | AMULETA | DICTIS | CUM RECENSIONE SCRIPTORUM | HUIUS ARGUMENTI | LIBER SINGULARIS.

Hamburg: Christian Liebezeit, 1717.

Octavo. ca. 180 × 110 mm. Gestochenes Frontispiz, [6], 184, [16] (Index) Seiten. Titel in rot und schwarz, mit gestochener Verlegervignette auf Titel sowie Holzschnittvignetten.

Handgefertigte schlichte Pappbroschur der Zeit aus hellgraublauer Pappe mit handschriftlichem Rückenschild. Unbeschnitten.

Erste Ausgabe, erst 1792 erschien eine deutsche Übersetzung (= Jouin/Descreux 855). „Contient des remarques sur environ 530 auteurs et ouvrages occultes“ (Caillet I, p. 64). Beschreibt die Werke antiker, mittelalterlicher und Renaissance-Autoren, bis solche ins 18. Jh. hinein, darunter auch Schriften arabischer Verfasser. Arpe, „ein sehr gelehrter, fleißiger und vernünftiger Jurist“ (Zedler, Suppl. II,1751), verfaßte diesen „Epilog der Talismanologie aus einer Zeit, in der die Blütezeit dieser Kunst längst vorüber war“ (Biedermann: Handlexikon der magischen Künste, 3. Auflage, I,62).
¶ Peter Friedrich Arpe (1682-1740), Sohn eines Kieler Bürgermeisters, Jurist und Historiker, studierte in Kiel und Kopenhagen die Rechte. 1712 hielt er in Kiel zunächst als Privatdozent Vorlesungen und trat 1721 eine Professur für Öffentliches und Vaterländisches Recht an. Meinungsverschiedenheiten mit Kollegen führten drei Jahre später zu seiner Entlassung; um 1726 ließ er sich als Jurist und Schriftsteller in Hamburg nieder und war zwischen den Jahren 1729 und 1731 braunschweigisch-wolfenbüttelscher Legationsrat. 1733 folgte Arpe einem Ruf des Herzogs Christian Ludwig von Mecklenburg an die Regierungskanzlei in Schwerin, wo er bis zu seinem Tod tätig war. Daneben trieb er historische und bibliographische Studien.

Einband fleckig und wasserrandig; Bibliothekstempel auf Titel, erste zwei Lagen etwas wasserrandig, sonst hell stockfleckig, eine Lage papierbedingt gebräunt, gegen Ende gebräunt. Sehr selten.

First edition. Contemporary wrappers. Waterstained, some foxing. „An interesting transition work reflecting the contradictory tendencies of a period which stands between (true or pretended) piety and belief in magic on the one hand, and the freethinking of the Enlightenment on the other. Here under the mask of Christian piety we find observations, really damaging to religious belief, on the astrological and fetishistic superstitions of great theologians such as Thomas Aquinas, who are here closed together with superstitious natural scientists like Paracelsus“ (Faber du Faur, p. 404). „Arpe is an interesting transition figure, and in his writings there is a reflection of the last remnants of 17th-century thinking colored with negromantic superstition. At the same time one finds in him the first rather veiled but recognizable stirrings of the Age of Enlightenment“ (Faber du Faur, p. 403).

Faber du Faur 1576 – Graesse: Magica 39 – Caillet I,446 – Rosenthal 1814 – Ebert 1227 – Georgi I,69 – Biedermann: Handlexikon der magischen Künste, 3. Auflage, I,62. Nicht bei Petzholdt – Bibliographien.

 

Interessant ist die Herkunft beider Wörter. Talisman, das erst Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts von französisch und englisch talisman, cf. Jacques Gaffarel: Curiositez inouyes, sur la Sculpture talismanique des Persans, horoscope des Patriarches, et lecture des Estoilles. Paris: Hervé du Mesnil, 1629, oder vom spanischen Talismán ins Deutsche übernommen wurde. Dies könnte auf den arabischen Dual ṭilasmān zum Singular ṭilsam, klassisch ṭilasm, ‚Zauberbild‘, zurückgehen und dieses auf griechisch τέλεσμα, geweihter Gegenstand, τελετή, Einweihung, &c.

Amulett stammt von lateinisch amuletum und bereicherte ab Mitte des 16. Jahrhunderts die deutsche sowie die französische Sprache, cf. Pontus de Tyard, Übersetzer der „Dialoghi di amore“: Mantice, ou discours de la vérité de Divination par l’Astrologie. Lyon: de Tournes et Gazeau, 1558. Doch bleibt der Ursprung des lateinischen Wortes unklar, cf. amolimentum, Schutzmittel, Amulett, von amolior, oder amylum, Stärke, Haferschleim, ἄμυλον.

Durch ein umfangreiches Register auf 32 Seiten erschlossenes, auch im modernen Sinne recht wissenschaftliches Werk mit zahlreichen Verweisen und Fußnoten. Auf der letzten Seite dieser Hinweis:
Arpe Register

 

Roy Kotansky: Amulets

Amulets (Lat. amuletum; Gk. phylaktèrion [φυλαϰτήϱιον, rfm]) are small devices usually worn on or attached to the body for protection and a variety of other purposes. In the ancient Mediterranean world, particularly during the later Roman Empire (ca. 2nd-5th cent. C.E.), a widespread industry of amulets proliferated. Amulets were comprised largely of inscribed texts written on a number of more or less permanent media (papyrus, metal strips, semiprecious gemstones, and occasionally organic materials). They display a great diversity as to type and manufacture, although a considerable stylistic uniformity in the industry is evident. Our major source for the use of amulets comes from the preserved collections of the Greek Magical Papyri, principally the longer formularies, or manuals, that give specific instructions for performing various magical rituals (Papyri Graecae Magicae2 = PGM, with supplements in Supplementum Magicum = SM). Ancient Christian magical texts, mostly in Coptic (Meyer-Smith 1994), represent a natural development out of the older pagan traditions. (...)

In addition to inscribed magical amulets, the manuals presuppose an extended tradition of “unlettered” amulets, organic or mineral-based periapts (Gk. periapton [πεϱίαπτον, πεϱί + ἅπτω, rfm], “tied onto; fastened on” [as an amulet]) used for healing and protection. Based on universal principles of sympathetic and antipathetic magic, these kinds of amulets have not usually survived, or when they have, are difficult to identify. Still, the side-by-side use of “uninscribed” versus “inscribed” amulets has continued unabated from antiquity down through the Middle Ages and even into modern times. Why amulets were required to be made or written on certain materials is in most cases unclear, although it is widely recognized that gold and silver, for example, was reserved for writing protective phylacteries, whereas lead was used for curses (gold and silver were popularly believed to be astral elements related to the sun [Helios] and moon [Selene], respectively; lead was the metal of Saturn). Distinctions were also made with certain gemstone materials.
— Roy Kotansky in: Wouter J. Hanegraaff: Dictionary of Gnosis and Western Esotericism. Leiden: Brill, 2006. pp. 60-61.

 

Πλούταϱχος — Plutarch

Ὡς γὰϱ οἱ ἐν νοσήμασι χϱονίοις πϱὸς τὰ ϰοινὰ βοηϑήματα ϰαὶ τὰς συνήϑεις διαίτας ἀπειπόντες ἐπὶ ϰαϑαϱμοὺς ϰαὶ πεϱίαπτα ϰαὶ ὀνείϱους τϱέπονται, οὕτως ἀναγϰαῖον ἐν δυσϑεωϱήτοις ϰαὶ ἀπόϱοις σϰέψεσιν, ὅταν οἱ ϰοινοὶ ϰαὶ ἔνδοξοι ϰαὶ συνήϑεις λόγοι μὴ πείϑωσι, πειϱᾶσϑαι τῶν ἀτοπωτέϱων ϰαὶ μὴ ϰαταφϱονεῖν ἀλλ᾽ ἐπᾴδειν ἀτεχνῶς ἑαυτοῖς τὰ τῶν παλαιῶν ϰαὶ διὰ πάντων τἀληϑὲς ἐξελέγχειν.
Πεϱὶ τοῦ ἐμφαινομένου πϱοσώπου τῷ ϰύϰλῳ τῆς σελήνης.
 

As people with chronic diseases when they have despaired of ordinary remedies and customary regimens turn to expiations and amulets and dreams, just so in obscure and perplexing speculations, when the ordinary and reputable and customary accounts are not persuasive, it is necessary to try those that are more out of the way and not scorn them but literally to chant over ourselves4 the charms of the ancients and use every means to bring the truth to test.
De faciae quae in orbe lunae apparet. Translated by Harold Cherniss and William C. Helmbold. London: William Heinemann, 1957.
 

Καὶ μάλ᾽’ ἔφη ‘λέγεις ὀϱϑῶς’ ὁ Πατϱοϰλέας ‘ἐπί γε τῶν σωματιϰῶν τὰ δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς, ὧν ἐστι ϰαὶ τὸ βασϰαίνειν, τίνα τϱόπον ϰαὶ πῶς διὰ τῆς ὄψεως τὴν βλάβην εἰς τοὺς ὁϱωμένους διαδίδωσιν;’ ‘ οὐϰ οἶσϑ᾽’ ἔφην ‘ὅτι πάσχουσ᾽ ἡ ψυχὴ τὸ σῶμα συνδιατίϑησιν; ἐπίνοιαι γὰϱ ἀφϱοδισίων ἐγείϱουσιν αἰδοῖα, ϰαὶ ϑυμοὶ ϰυνῶν ἐν ταῖς πϱὸς τὰ ϑηϱία γιγνομέναις ἁμίλλαις ἀποσβεννύουσι τὰς ὁϱάσεις πολλάϰις ϰαὶ τυφλοῦσι: λῦπαι δὲ ϰαὶ φιλαϱγυϱίαι ϰαὶ ζηλοτυπίαι τὰ χϱώματα τϱέπουσι ϰαὶ ϰαταξαίνουσι τὰς ἕξεις: ὧν οὐδενὸς ὁ φϑόνος ἧττον ἐνδύεσϑαι τῇ ψυχῇ πεφυϰὼς ἀναπίμπλησι ϰαὶ τὸ σῶμα πονηϱίας, ἣν οἱ ζωγϱάφοι ϰαλῶς ἐπιχειϱοῦσιν ἀπομιμεῖσϑαι τὸ τοῦ φϑόνου πϱόσωπον ὑπογϱάφοντες. ὅταν οὖν οὕτως ὑπὸ τοῦ φϑονεῖν διατεϑέντες ἀπεϱείδωσι τὰς ὄψεις, αἱ δ᾽ ἔγγιστα τεταγμέναι τῆς ψυχῆς σπάσασαι τὴν ϰαϰίαν ὥσπεϱ πεφαϱμαγμένα βέλη πϱοσπίπτωσιν, οὐδὲν οἶμαι συμβαίνει παϱάλογον οὐδ᾽ ἄπιστον, εἰ ϰινοῦσι τοὺς πϱοσοϱωμένους: ϰαὶ γὰϱ τὰ δήγματα τῶν ϰυνῶν χαλεπώτεϱα γίγνεται μετ᾽ ὀϱγῆς δαϰνόντων: ϰαὶ τὰ σπέϱματα τῶν ἀνϑϱώπων μᾶλλον ἅπτεσϑαί φασιν, ὅταν ἐϱῶντες πλησιάζωσι: ϰαὶ ὅλως τὰ πάϑη τὰ τῆς ψυχῆς ἐπιϱϱώννυσι ϰαὶ ποιεῖ σφοδϱοτέϱας τὰς τοῦ σώματος δυνάμεις. διὸ ϰαὶ τὸ τῶν λεγομένων πϱοβασϰανίων γένος οἴονται πϱὸς τὸν φϑόνον ὠφελεῖν, ἑλϰομένης διὰ τὴν ἀτοπίαν τῆς ὄψεως, ὥσϑ᾽ ἧττον ἐπεϱείδειν τοῖς πάσχουσιν.
Συμποσιαϰά V,vii.

Very right, said Patrocles, and you reason well as to changes wrought upon the body; but as to the soul, which in some measure exerts the power of witchcraft, how can this give any disturbance by the eye? Sir, I replied, do not you consider, that the soul, when affected, works upon the body? Thoughts of love excite lust, and rage often blinds dogs as they fight with wild beasts. Sorrow, covetousness, or jealousy makes us change color, and destroys the habit of the body; and envy more than any passion, when fixed in the soul, fills the body full of ill humors, and makes it pale and ugly; which deformities good painters in their pictures of envy endeavor to represent. Now, when men thus perverted by envy fix their eyes upon another, and these, being nearest to the soul, easily draw the venom from it, and send out as it were poisoned darts, it is no wonder, in my mind, if he that is looked upon is hurt. Thus the biting of a dog when mad is most dangerous ; and then the seed of a man is most prolific, when he embraces one that he loves; and in general the affections of the mind strengthen and invigorate the powers of the body. And therefore people imagine that those amulets that are preservative against witchcraft are likewise good and efficacious against envy; the sight by the strangeness of the spectacle being diverted, so that it cannot make so strong an impression upon the patient.
Quaestiones Convivales. Translated by William W. Goodwin. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1874

 

M. Terenti Varronis De lingua latina

In Stigmatia „praebia“ a praebendo, ut sit tutus, quod sint remedia in collo pueris;
— VII, 107.

In The Branded Slave, praebia ‘amulets,’ from praebere ‘providing’ that he may be safe, because they are prophylactics to be hung on boys’ necks;
— Translated by Roland G. Kent. London: Heinemann, 1938.

 

Lynn Thorndike

A common characteristic of magic force and occult virtue is that it will often act at a distance or without any physical contact or direct application. This is manifested in the practice of carrying or wearing amulets, or, what is the same thing, of ligatures and suspensions, in which objects are hung from the neck or bound to some part of the body in order to ward off danger from without or cure internal disease. Instances of such practices in the Natural History are well nigh innumerable. Roots are suspended from the neck by a thread; the tongue of a fox is worn in a bracelet; for quinsy the throat is wound thrice with a thong of dog-skin and catarrh is relieved by winding the same about the fingers. A tooth stops aching when worms are taken from a certain prickly plant, put with some bread in a pill-box, and bound to the arm on the same side of the body as the aching tooth." Two bed-bugs bound to the left arm in wool stolen from shepherds are a charm against nocturnal fevers; against diurnal fevers, if wrapped in russet cloth instead. The heart of a vulture is an amulet against snakes, wild beasts, robbers, and royal wrath. The traveler who carries the herb artemisia feels no fatigue. (...) All sorts of specifications are given as to the color and kind of string, cloth, skin, box, nail, ring, bracelet, and the like in which should be placed, or with which should be bound on, the various gems, herbs, and parts of animals which serve as amulets. But when we are told that a remedy for headache which always helps many consists of a little bone from a snail found between two cart ruts, passed through gold, silver, and ivory, and attached to the body with dog-skin; or that one may bind on the head with a linen cloth the head of a snail decapitated with a reed when feeding in the morning especially at full moon; we feel that we have passed beyond mere amulets, ligatures, and suspensions to more elaborate minutiae of magic procedure. (...)

In another passage he [Galen, rfm] holds that there is no medical reason to account for the virtues of amulets, but that those who have tested them by experience say that they act by some marvelous antipathy unknown to man. (...)

To Dioscorides are attributed such amulets as the teeth of a mad dog who has bit a man, which will safeguard their wearer from ever being so bitten — and it would be somewhat of a coincidence, if he were — and the seed of wild saffron which, held in the hand or worn about the neck, is good for the stings of scorpions.
— Lynn Thorndike: A History of Magic and Experimental Science, vol. I. New York, London: Columbia UP, 1923. pp. 89-90, 173, 656.